Going Big Time With Class D

大举进取 中国制造出D级全动飞行模拟器

Date:2020-11-15 Source:strategypage By:Globalmil Viewed:


据了解,安胜公司首台A320ceo全动飞行模拟机于2019年11月通过中国民航局D级鉴定,并于次月交付天津飞安航空训练有限公司投入训练。
 
November 11, 2020: A Chinese firm has developed, produced and had certified the first Chinese full-motion (Class D) flight simulator for commercial airliners. The first one is for the AirBus A320, which is widely used in China. Western models of this type of flight simulator cost $15 million each. The Chinese are selling theirs for about $12 million. While export sales are expected, the Chinese made flight simulators will mainly service the Chinese market, which will need at least 500 of them over the next 20 years.
2020年11月11日:一家中国公司已经开发,生产并认证了首架用于商业客机的中国全动(D级)飞行模拟器。面向第一种在中国广泛使用的“空中客车”(AirBus)A320。 西方这种类型的飞行模拟器模型每台造价1500万美元。中国人以约1200万美元的价格出售。尽管预计出口销售,但中国制造的飞行模拟器将主要服务于中国市场,在未来20年内,中国至少需要500台。
 
Until now all Class D simulators came from American or European manufacturers. These flight simulators duplicate the cockpit of a specific airliner model and are mounted on four pistons to simulate the movement of the cockpit during landing, takeoff and turbulence. The cockpit windows are photo-realistic, full color displays of what the pilots would see at various airports. The simulator software replicates the performance characteristics of the aircraft as well as unique conditions for various airports. This is important because some airports are more difficult to land and takeoff in than others. The differences include altitude, weather conditions and surrounding geography and structures.
到目前为止,所有D级模拟器都来自美国或欧洲的制造商。 这些飞行模拟器仿真特定客机型号的驾驶舱,并安装在四个活塞上,以模拟降落,起飞和湍流期间驾驶舱的运动。座舱窗口是逼真的全彩色显示屏,显示飞行员在各个机场看到的东西。模拟器软件复制了飞机的性能特征以及各个机场的独特条件。这很重要,因为某些机场比其他机场更难着陆和起飞。差异包括海拔高度,天气状况以及周围的地理和结构。


安胜(天津) 飞行模拟系统有限公司(以下简称:安胜公司)空客A320全动飞行模拟机
 
These Class D simulators can also familiarize pilots with various types of emergency situations. Each model of airliner has different flight control software and handles differently under emergency conditions. A Class D Simulator is the cheapest and safest way to train pilots on specific model characteristics.
这些D级模拟器还可以使飞行员熟悉各种类型的紧急情况。每种型号的客机都有不同的飞行控制软件,并且在紧急情况下的处理方式也不同。 D级模拟器是对飞行员进行特定飞机型号特性培训的最便宜,最安全的方法。
 
Class D type simulators for combat aircraft are at least twice as expensive because the pilot can see a lot more from the cockpit and there are more possible maneuvers. There are more possible emergencies, some of them because of combat damage. China has already been building and using various types of simulators for combat aircraft.
用于战斗机的D级模拟器的价格至少要贵两倍,因为飞行员可以从驾驶舱看到更多的东西,并且可以进行更多的机动动作。还有更多可能的紧急情况,其中一些是由于战斗损坏而引起的。中国已经在为战斗机建造和使用各种类型的模拟器。
 
These Class D, military or civilian, usually operate round-the-clock for about 6,000 hours a year. It costs about $500 an hour to operate these simulators and that covers maintenance of the hardware and software as well as staff to brief pilots on new features and monitor use. This is only a few percent of what it costs to operate the aircraft being simulated. But it’s not only cost. A Class D simulator can prepare a pilot for emergency situations and the flight control software quirks of a specific airliner or combat aircraft. Flight simulators allow pilots to learn how to deal with many different flight emergencies without risking a pilot or actual aircraft.
这些D级军用或民用,通常一年24小时不停地运转。操作这些模拟器的每小时成本约为500美元,其中包括硬件和软件的维护以及向飞行员简要介绍新功能和显示器使用情况的员工。这仅是模拟飞机运营成本的百分之几。但这不仅是成本。D级模拟器可以为紧急情况准备飞行员,并为特定的客机或战斗机准备飞行控制软件。飞行模拟器使飞行员能够学习如何应对许多不同的紧急飞行情况,而不必冒着飞行员或实际飞机的风险。
 
The development of flight simulators began in the 1930s. Back then, the simulators were much more primitive, and were used to teach pilots how to fly, and navigate, at night. It was much cheaper, and safer, to do this kind of training on the ground, via a simulator. Even today, the main emphasis with simulators is handling in-flight emergencies. Flights tend to be rather uneventful most of the time. But many emergencies can crop up, if only rarely, so the pilots have a safe way to practice handling common, and not so common, emergencies.
飞行模拟器的发展始于20世纪30年代,那时,模拟器更为原始,被用来教飞行员如何在夜间飞行和导航。通过模拟器在地面上进行这种培训要便宜得多,也更安全。即使在今天,模拟器的主要重点仍然是处理机上紧急情况。在大多数情况下,飞行通常都比较平稳。但是,许多紧急事件(即使很少)也会出现,因此,飞行员有一种安全的方法来练习处理常见的(而不是很常见的)紧急情况。
 
New technology has made flight simulators a lot more effective. Until the late 1990s, a realistic combat flight simulator cost about as much as the aircraft it was simulating. While that did reduce the cost (per "flying" hour) of pilots practicing, it was not enough of a savings to make it practical for less wealthy countries to get these simulators and use them heavily. Thus, we had a continuation of the situation where countries could scrape together enough money to buy high performance aircraft, but not enough to pay for all that flight time needed to make their pilots good enough to face a better trained foe. It is different with commercial airliners, where there are international standards for pilots taking airliners outside their own country. Pilots have to be certified to handle emergencies as well as the unique characteristics of some local airports. Commercial airlines either have to buy their own Class D simulators or rent time on one. As a result Class D simulators, and their combat aircraft equivalents are rarely idle.
新技术使飞行模拟器效率大大提高。直到20世纪90年代末,现实的战斗飞行模拟器的成本大约是其模拟飞机的成本。虽然这样做确实降低了飞行员执勤的成本(每“飞行”小时),但节省下来的钱不足以使较富裕的国家切实获得这些模拟器并大量使用它们。因此,我们继续存在这样一种情况,即各国可以花足够的钱来购买高性能的飞机,但还不足以支付使飞行员足够优秀以面对训练有素的敌人所需要的全部飞行时间。与商业客机不同,在商业客机中,飞行员在本国境外驾驶客机有国际标准。飞行员必须经过认证才能处理紧急情况以及某些当地机场的独特特征。商业航空公司必须购买自己的D级模拟器或租用一段时间。结果,D级模拟器及其等效战机很少处于空闲状态。
 
Since the 1990s a new generation of simulators, especially for combat aircraft, were developed. These only 20-30 percent as much as the aircraft they simulate. Suddenly, countries like China could buy dozens of combat simulators, and give their pilots enough realistic training to make them a threat in the air, at least to Western pilots. While a hundred hours a year in a simulator isn't a complete replacement for a hundred hours of actual air time, it's close enough if the training scenarios are well thought out. And another 40-50 hours of actual air time a year gives you a competent pilot. Add another few hundred hours using commercial (game store bought) flight simulators (especially when played in groups via a LAN), and you have some deadly pilots. The Chinese have, since the 1990s, stressed the use of PCs as a foundation for cheaper and more powerful simulators. Now they have an opportunity to really cash in on this insight.
自20世纪90年代以来,开发了新一代的模拟器,尤其是用于战斗机的模拟器。这些只有它们模拟飞机的20%到30%。突然之间,像中国这样的国家可能会购买数十台战斗机模拟器,并对飞行员进行足够的实际训练,使他们在空中成为威胁,至少对西方飞行员来说是这样。虽然模拟器中一年一百小时的飞行时间并不能完全替代一百个小时的实际飞行时间,但如果训练方案经过深思熟虑,这已经足够接近了。另外每年40-50个小时的实际飞行时间让你成为一个称职的飞行员。使用商业(在游戏商店购买)的飞行模拟器再增加几百小时(尤其是通过局域网以小组的形式进行游戏时),您会遇到一些致命的飞行员。20世纪90年代以来,中国人就一直强调使用PC作为廉价,功能强大的模拟器的基础。现在,他们有机会真正利用这一见解。
 
But now China is in the big leagues for flight simulators and will provide some price competition for Western manufacturers of Class D simulators.
但现在中国已经进入了飞行模拟器的大联盟,并将面对西方D级模拟器制造商提供一定的价格竞争。

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