Swarmware Goes To War

无人机蜂群走向战争 中国号称第一

Date:2020-11-10 Source:strategypage By:Globalmil Viewed:


 WS-43 UAVs

November 8, 2021: Swarmware is the software required to make a group (a few to scores) of UAVs move and automatically cooperate with each other to accomplish a mission without a human controller, and even in the presence jamming or electronic countermeasures. For decades there have been multiple efforts to develop true swarmware. The U.S. has come close but Chinese now claim they have done it. To demonstrate their achievement, the Chinese military is purchasing large quantities of CH-901 and WS-43 UAVs equipped to operate as an autonomous AI (Artificial Intelligence) controlled attack swarm. The CH-901 weighs 9 kg (20 pound), 1.2-meters (47 inch) long, carries a 2.5 kg (5.5 pound) payload of sensors and/or explosives and has an endurance of 120 minutes. Top speed of 150 KPH (kilometers per hour).
2021年11月8日:蜂群(Swarmware)是一个软件,使一组(少数几架)无人机行进并自动相互协作以完成任务而无需人工操作,甚至在存在干扰或电子对策的情况下。几十年来,人们一直在努力开发真正的蜂群软件。美国已经接近了,但中国人现在声称已经做到了。为了证明自己的成就,中国军方正在购买大量的CH-901和WS-43无人机,它们可以作为自主AI(人工智能)控制的攻击群运行。CH-901重9千克(20磅),长1.2米(47英寸),可携带2.5千克(5.5磅)有效载荷的传感器和/或爆炸物,续航力为120分钟。最高时速为150 KPH(公里/小时)。

WS-43 UAVs
 
The WS-43 is similar but larger at 160 kg with a 20 kg warhead, max speed of 300 KPH and endurance of 30 minutes. Both UAVs are propeller driven and battery powered. Both models are launched from a storage tube at which point the wings unfold and the propeller starts. The CH-901 has been seen carried on a 6x6 truck in a box launcher with 48 launch tubes. The WS-43 can also be carried by truck mounted launcher with about twelve launch tubes per truck. These multi-tube launchers can also be carried on ships. Both UAVs have smaller numbers of launch tubes carried by helicopters or fixed wing aircraft.
WS-43与之相似,但更大,重160公斤,战斗部20公斤,最大速度300 KPH(公里/小时),续航力30分钟。两种无人机均由螺旋桨驱动并由电池供电。两种型号均从存储管发射,此时机翼展开,螺旋桨启动。可以看到CH-901使用6x6卡车搭载,在48个发射管的箱式发射器中装载。WS-43也可以由安装在卡车上的发射器携带,每辆卡车约有十二个发射管。这些多管发射器也可以舰载携带。两种无人机的直升机或固定翼飞机的机载发射管数量均较少。

 
When used individually, the CH-901 has an operator-controlled range of 15 kilometers while the WS-43 control range is 30-60 kilometers. When operating as a swarm weapon, there is no operator control and the missions can be one way. UAVs in an attack swarm are programmed to share information with each other and, with AI software targeting sensors currently used for various types of anti-vehicle/ship weapons, find and attack individual targets. In this autonomous mode CH-901 has a max range of about 250 kilometers while the WS-43 can cover about half that.
单独使用时,CH-901的控制范围为15公里,而WS-43的控制范围为30-60公里。当作为集群武器操作时,没有操作员控制,并且任务可以是单程的。攻击群中的无人机被编程为彼此共享信息,并利用AI软件瞄准目前用于各种反车辆/船舶武器的传感器,搜寻并攻击单个目标。在这种自主模式下,CH-901的最大射程约为250公里,而WS-43的最大射程约为一半。


CH-901
 
In effect, China claims to have mastered technologies that were known to be possible since the 1980s but so far no one has put it all together to produce the swarming system China claims to have. That means that each multiple launcher full of UAVs has to be equipped to give all its UAV swarming instructions. That would include how far away the target area is and what types of targets (vehicles) to go after. The “vehicles” could include components of a mobile air defense system, artillery vehicles or trucks carrying equipment, aircraft on the ground, supplies, bunkers or troops. China says it has tested its UAVs under control of “swarmware” but gave no details of results except that it was successful.
实际上,中国声称已经掌握了自上世纪80年代以来已知的可能的技术,但到目前为止,还没有人将这些技术综合起来,形成中国声称拥有的蜂群系统。这就意味着每台装有无人飞行器的多重发射器都必须配备其所有无人飞行器集群指令。这将包括目标区域有多远以及要找寻的目标(车辆)类型。 “车辆”可能包括机动防空系统,运载设备的炮车或卡车,地面飞机,物资,掩体或部队。 中国表示已经在“蜂群”的控制下对其无人机进行了测试,但没有透露测试结果的细节,只说它成功了。
 
Since the 1980s the U.S. Department of Defense has been spending more time and effort on developing technology to make it possible for autonomous robots to communicate and cooperate in maintaining the most efficient “swarm” of robotic sensors or weapons. Progress has been slow but successful. By 2016 the navy tested swarms of small submarine detecting surface and underwater vehicles. The air force had already developed swarming systems for UAVs as well as some types of aerial decoys. The army is doing the same with small robotic vehicles used for surveillance and security. After more than half a century of theoretical and practical work, the swarms are about to enter service and China is claiming to be first.
自1980年以来,美国国防部一直在投入更多时间和精力来开发技术,以使自主机器人能够进行交流和合作,以保持最有效的“集群”机器人传感器或武器。进展缓慢但成功。到2016年,海军对集群小型潜艇探测水面和水下航行器进行了测试。空军已经为无人机和某些类型的空中诱饵开发了蜂群系统。陆军对于用于监视和安全的小型机器人车辆也是如此。经过半个多世纪的理论和实践工作,这些蜂群即将服役,中国号称第一。
 
The three U.S. armed services have already developed tactical uses for the swarms. In the 1990s the navy began developing tactics for using swarms of aerial, surface and underwater unmanned vehicles to precede large fleet movements to ensure safe transit of the U.S. warships. The air force already has tactics for using swarms for penetrating complex air defense systems.
美国三军已经为蜂群开发了战术用途。海军在1990年开始制定战术,在大批舰队行动之前使用大量的空中,水面和水下无人驾驶航行器,以确保美国军舰安全过境。空军已经有了使用蜂群来渗透复杂的防空系统的战术。
 
You could see this coming. For example, in 2011 an American firm conducted a successful test of UAV swarming software. In practical terms, this is flight control and search software that enables two or more UAVs to organize and carry out the most efficient search of an area, once ordered to do so by an operator who controls all of them. Two Scan Eagle UAVs were used for the test.
你可能会看到这种情况。 例如,2011年,一家美国公司对无人机蜂群软件进行了成功的测试。实际上,这是飞行控制和搜索软件,一旦由控制所有这些无人机的操作员下令,两个或多个无人机就可以组织并执行最有效的区域搜索。 测试使用了两架“扫描鹰”(Scan Eagle)无人机。
 
The swarming technology also has commercial applications, for any situation in which you want a land or sea area searched quickly and thoroughly using UAVs. But the military is particularly in need of this new tech, as there are often a number of different UAVs in an area, and the swarm tech enables all these UAVs to quickly participate in an automated search where the strengths and limitations of each UAV are taken into account.
对于希望使用无人机快速,彻底地搜索陆地或海域的任何情况,蜂群技术也具有商业应用。但是军方特别需要这项新技术,因为一个地区通常有许多不同的无人机,并且蜂群技术使所有这些无人机都能快速参与到自动搜索中,从而充分利用了每种无人机的优势并考虑了局限性在内。
 
In some respects the U.S. Navy and Air Force already have a UAV swarming system in the form of the MALD-N (miniature air-launched decoy). This is a powered disposable decoy that can broadcast signals imitating various radars and do so while networked (thus the N) with other MALD-Ns as well as manned aircraft. This enables all the MALD-Ns in a swarm to automatically share information and quickly make changes to maintain the maximum confusion for enemy radars. There’s a pilot or system operator monitoring all this and able to intervene if needed. The MALD-N is a variant of the older (2012) MALD-J, the first jammer version of MALD.
在某些方面,美国海军和空军已经拥有MALD-N(微型空射诱饵)形式的无人机集群。这是一种电驱动一次性诱饵,它可以模仿各种雷达来射频信号,并且可以与其他MALD-N和有人驾驶飞机联网(即N)的同时进行发出射频信号。这使一群MALD-N能够自动共享信息并快速进行更改,以使敌方雷达持续最大混乱。有一名飞行员或系统操作员监视所有这些情况,并可以在需要时进行干预。 MALD-N是较旧的(2012)MALD-J的改版,MALD-J是MALD的第一个干扰版本。
 
The original ADM-160B MALD finally passed acceptance tests in 2009 and the air force agreed to buy it. The original MALD is a 115 kg (250 pound) powered decoy with a range of 900 kilometers and speed comparable with the cruise speed of some manned warplanes. MALD appears on the enemy radar as a warplane. MALD itself is a torpedo-shaped object that is about half the size of a Tomahawk cruise missile. MALD operates on the same principle as Tomahawk. When launched short wings pop out and a small jet engine starts. MALD deceives enemy radars with electronics that can generate signals that make MALD appear to be one of several actual warplanes. MALD is preprogrammed to fly a specific route with its electronic radar transmitter programmed to emit signals making the tiny MALD appear like a larger aircraft on the enemy radar.
最初的ADM-160B MALD最终在2009年通过了验收测试,空军同意购买。初始的MALD是一个115千克(250磅)的动力诱饵,航程900公里,速度可与某些载人战斗机的巡航速度相当。MALD作为战机出现在敌方雷达上。MALD本身是鱼雷状物体,大约是战斧巡航导弹的一半。MALD的运行原理与“战斧”相同。发射时,短翼弹出,小型喷气发动机启动。MALD用电子设备欺骗敌方雷达,这些电子设备会产生使MALD看起来像是几架实际战机之一的信号。MALD预先编程飞行特定路线,其电子雷达发射器被编程用于发射信号,使微型MALD在敌方雷达上看起来像是一架更大的飞机。
 
American and Israeli forces already have several models of tube launched UAVs that can be used for reconnaissance or attack. The American Switchblade 300 is similar to the CH-901 while the more recent Switchblade 600 is similar to the WS-43. Israel also has similar models of loitering munitions. But so far no one but the Chinese claim to have fully autonomous swarmware. Then again the MALD-N software would be, and may already have been, modified to full-autonomous swarmware mode.
美国和以色列部队已经拥有几种可用于侦察或攻击的筒型无人机型号。美国的Switchblade 300与CH-901类似,而最新的Switchblade 600与WS-43类似。以色列也有类似的巡游弹药模式。但是到目前为止,除了中国人之外,没有人声称拥有完全自主的集群软件。然后,MALD-N软件将再次修改为全自动集群软件模式,而且可能已经对其进行了修改。
 

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