Surface Forces: Burke Rebuild Busted


Date:2020-04-06 Source:strategypage By:Globalmil Viewed:


April 5, 2020: In early 2020 the U.S. Navy announced that it could not afford to refurbish dozens of older destroyers. This refurb plan was needed to maintain the size of the destroyer fleet until a new destroyer design could be developed and put into production. The navy budget can’t handle the refurb plan and still take care of more urgent ship building requirements.
In late 2017, as the last of the three U.S. Navy Burke class “restart” ships entered service, the navy began working on a plan to extend the life of all Burkes to 45 years and continuing to build Burkes. That meant the existing and future Burkes would have their planned service live extended five to ten years. This is not difficult because the Burkes were a good design that performed well since the first of them entered service in 1991. At the same time new Burkes were under construction and the last of these won’t enter service until the late 2020s.
2017年底,随着美国三艘“伯克”级“重启”舰船中的最后一艘服役,海军开始制定计划,将所有“伯克”级的寿命延长至45年,并继续建造“伯克”级。这意味着现有的和未来的“伯克”级将其计划服役的寿命延长五到十年。 这并不难,因为自从1991年第一艘“伯克”级进入服役以来,“伯克”级的设计就一直很好,并且性能良好。与此同时,新的“伯克”级正在建造中,而最后一批“伯克”级则要等到2020年末才能进入服役。
On the other hand the first Burkes will have to retire in 2036 and 30 will be gone by 2046. Thus the navy is hustling to come up with a replacement design that will be affordable and can be built soon enough to replace the retiring Burkes. The destroyer shortage is particularly acute because destroyers are literally the hardest working ships of the navy. They spend more time at sea (90 days a year on average) and while built for that sort of heavy use, all that time at sea makes it difficult to extend the lives of these ships with a major refurbishment.
The Burkes were Cold War era design that was supposed to have been replaced by a radical new design, the Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class. That did not work out because it took too long and cost too much to build the new Zumwalts. Meanwhile, it was noted that the Burkes remained a very effective design and a popular model for similar designs elsewhere, especially in East Asia where South Korea, Japan and China have built similar ships. So in 2009, the U.S. Navy decided to resume Burke production. Up until that point, the Burke class was to end building when the 61st one entered service in 2012. But then the U.S. Navy decided to build only three of the new Zumwalt class ships and resume (actually continue) production of the older DDG-51 Arleigh Burke class destroyers instead. Currently there are 67 Burkes in service with six under construction and four more on order. Ultimately 82 Burkes will be built but some will be retired before the last of the “restart” Burkes enter service.
“伯克”级是冷战时期的设计,原本应该由彻底的新设计“朱姆沃尔特”级(Zumwalt,DDG-1000)取代。这样做没有效果,因为建造新的“朱姆沃尔特”级花费的时间太长,成本也很高。同时,据指出,“伯克”级仍然是非常有效的设计,也是其他地方类似设计的流行模型,特别是在东亚,韩国,日本和中国建造了类似的舰艇。因此,2009年,美国海军决定恢复“伯克”级的生产。到那时,‘伯克“级将在2012年第61艘服役时结束建造。但是随后,美国海军决定只建造三艘新的“朱姆沃尔特”级舰船,并(实际上继续)恢复旧的DDG-51型”阿利·伯克“级驱逐舰的建造。目前有67艘”伯克“级在服役,连同有6艘正在建造中,还有4艘正在订购中。最终将建造82艘”伯克“级,但其中一些将在最后一批“翻新” ”伯克“级进入服役之前退役。
Since 2014 the navy has been working on a more affordable (than the Zumwalts) replacement for the Burkes. This new destroyed is called the FSC (“Future Surface Combatant”) and the first of these is not expected to enter service until after 2030. No final design has been completed but much tech from the Zumwalts will be used and errors of the over-budget Zumwalts avoided. It looks like the FSC will probably be based on the last of the restart Burkes. These Flight III destroyers max out the Burke hull but new propulsion systems and redesign of what goes in the hull would do it.
自2014年以来,海军一直在为”伯克“级研发价格更负担得起(与“朱姆沃尔特”级相比)的替代品。这种新的驱逐舰被称为FSC(“未来水面战斗舰”),预计其中的第一艘将在2030年之后进入服役。最终设计尚未完成,但将使用“朱姆沃尔特”的许多技术,并且充分避免“朱姆沃尔特”预算错误。FSC似乎可能基于最后一次翻新的”伯克“级。这些Flight III型驱逐舰最大程度地扩展了”伯克“级船体的性能,但是新的推进系统和船体部件的重新设计都可以做到。
The navy is also considering designs for a new FFG(X) frigate, to replace the LCS ships. There are four candidates and two most likely choices are existing European designs; the Spanish F-100 and Italian FREMM. These are successful existing ships designed to be easily modified to suit a large number of different requirements. The FFG(X) will have a modified Aegis radar and 32 VLS cells. Thus it could also provide BMD (ballistic missile defense) using the Aegis BMD capabilities many Burkes already have. The decision on which design the FFG(X) will be based is to be announced by mid-2020 and the first of these new frigates could be in service by 2026. These frigates will cost about a billion dollars each, three times what the last frigates, the Perrys cost. The LCS was supposed to replace the 71 Perrys, built between 1975 and 2004.
海军也正在考虑设计一种新型FFG(X)护卫舰,以取代LCS舰艇。有四种候选方案,而两种最可能的选择是现有的欧洲设计方案:西班牙的F-100型和意大利的FREMM型。这些都是成功的现有舰艇,其设计易于修改,以适应大量不同的要求。FFG(X)将拥有改良的“宙斯盾”雷达和32个VLS单元。因此,它还可以利用许多“伯克”级已经拥有的“宙斯盾”BMD功能提供BMD(弹道导弹防御)。FFG(X)将基于哪种设计的决定将于2020年中期宣布,首批新护卫舰将于2026年进入服役。每艘护卫舰的造价约为10亿美元,是目前最后一种“佩里”级护卫舰成本的三倍。 LCS应该取代了1975年至2004年之间建造的71艘“佩里”级。
Continued production of Burkes and extension of their service life to 45 (or more) years was a matter of cost and bad politics. Reviving Burke production is only a stopgap because the latest Chinese DDG design is basically a Burke and the Chinese are already making some interesting upgrades. In one or two decades China will also have to decide what the next generation of DDGs should be and that will be when China has a chance to replace United States as the leader in warship design and production. China can develop new designs more quickly and build them for less than the United States. The Burke situation is about more than replacing worn out warships.
The DDG-1000 destroyers, and slightly larger versions designated as cruisers. would cost more than $4 billion each if built in large quantities. The Burkes cost $1.9 billion each. The last of original Burkes was ordered in 2002 and entered service in 2012. But now another 14 are on order with the first three basically the same as the last of the original 62 Burkes. But the most of the restart Burkes will be “Flight III” types that incorporate more of the DDG-1000 technologies and take the Burke hull as far as possible.
持续建造“伯克”级并将其使用寿命延长至45(或更多)年是成本和糟糕的政治问题。恢复“伯克”级建造只是权宜之计,因为最新的中国DDG设计基本上是“伯克”级,而中国已经在进行一些有意思的升级。在一到二十年内,中国还必须决定下一代DDG应该是什么,那将是中国有机会取代美国成为军舰设计和建造的领导者的时候。中国可以更快地开发新设计,并以低于美国的价格建造它们。“伯克”级的局面远不止是更换破旧的军舰。DDG-1000型驱逐舰和稍大一些的型号称为巡洋舰。如果大量建造,每艘造价将超过40亿美元。“伯克”级每艘耗资19亿美元。最后一批最初的“伯克”级于2002年订购,并于2012年投入使用。但是现在又订购了14艘,其中前三艘与最初的62艘“伯克”级基本相同。但是,大多数翻新的“伯克”级将是“ Flight III”类型,它将结合更多的DDG-1000技术,并尽可能将“伯克”级船体采用。
While DDG-51 is less than half the cost of DDG-1000, some navy officials believe that, in the long run, the larger and more expensive DDG-1000 would be a better investment. The key problem here is the inability of the Navy to control building costs, and cost estimates, and the inability of the DDG-51s to provide space for some of the new technologies. This is basically a political problem because Congress provides the money and “guidance” for how the Navy should spend it. That has led to inefficient shipyards building warships that are nearly all over budget, late and suffering from increasingly poor quality control.
There are other problems as well, such as the costs of upgrades. Because of budget cuts (actual or expected), the Navy planned to buy some time (about a decade) by upgrading dozens of existing destroyers and cruisers. This is a bitter pill to swallow, as the navy was so sure about the new DDG-1000 that it accelerated the retirement of a dozen of the 31 Spruance class destroyers, in order to save the $28 million a year it would cost to keep each one of them in service after 2005. These ships were not just retired, they were all either broken up or sunk in training exercises. The dozen that entered service in 1979-83 could have been refurbished and been available until 2019. That's a lost opportunity. Refurbing older Burkes was thought to be an opportunity that would not be lost. Once crunching all the numbers it refurb plan was found untenable. The primary cost problem is the finite size of the navy procurement budget and the urgency of getting the new Columbia class of SSBNs (ballistic missile carrying nuclear subs) into service on time. The current 18 Ohio class SSBNs entered service between 1981 and 1997 and the first of them will retire by 2029. The final design of the Columbias is expected by 2021 which will enable the first of twelve to enter service by 2030.
The Burke class destroyers were expected to evolve over decades. The first one entered service in 1991. This was called the “Flight I” design. It was an 8,200 ton ship and 21 were built, the last one entering service in 1997. There were then seven 8,400 ton Flight II ships with the last of then entering service in 1999. The rest were 9,800 ton Flight IIA ships with the first one entering service in 2000. Because over half the original Burkes were Flight IIA this group evolved a lot during the 17 years they were being built. Then came the three “restart” Flight IIAs to be followed by over 30 Flight IIIs. These got more of the DDG-1000 technology. In particular, the Navy wanted to install the "smart ship" type automation (found in civilian ships for decades) that will enable crew size to be reduced. The "smart ship" gear also includes better networking and power distribution. In effect, the ship would be rewired. This could reduce the crew size by 20-30 percent (current destroyers have a crew of 320, with the cruisers carrying 350). In addition to considerable cost savings (over $100,000 a year per sailor), a smaller crew takes up less space, enabling the smaller crew to have more comfortable living quarters. This is a big deal as far as morale and retention (getting people to stay in the navy) goes. Most other new items are not space dependent, except for some of the power based ones (like the rail gun). But these technologies are receding farther into the future or, like the railgun, fading away.
预计“伯克”级驱逐舰将发展数十年。1991年首次服役。这就是“Flight I”型设计,这是一艘8200吨的舰艇,建造了21艘,最后一艘在1997年投入服役。当时有7艘8400吨的Flight II型,最后一艘在1999年进入服役。其余的是9800吨的IIA型,于2000年开始服役,其中第一艘在役。由于最初的“伯克”级有一半以上都是IIA型,因此在它们建造的17年中,它们经历了很大的发展。然后是三艘“翻新” IIA型,随后是30多艘III型,这些获得了更多的DDG-1000技术。特别是,海军希望安装“智能舰艇”型自动化系统(在民用船只上已有数十年的历史),这将使船员人数减少。 “智能舰艇”装备还包括更好的联网和配电。实际上,该舰艇将被重新布线。这样可以将船员人数减少20%到30%(目前的驱逐舰拥有320名乘员,巡洋舰携带350名)。除了节省大量成本(每位水手每年超过100,000美元)外,规模较小的船员占用的空间也较小,从而使规模较小的船员拥有更舒适的居住空间。就士气和维持(使人们留在海军)而言,这是一个大问题。除了一些基于动力的装备(如轨道炮)以外,大多数其他新装备都不依赖于空间。但是这些技术正在向更远的方向发展,或者像电磁炮一样逐渐消失。
The navy has discovered that a lot of the desired new DDG-1000 tech won’t fit into a Burke, even the larger Flight III ones. The Burke extension program is also supposed to stay away from the overambitious (and off unworkable and over budget) new tech. Stick with what is already known and don’t give the shipyards an opportunity to delay work and jack up the cost. Concentrate on quality control and don’t let the refurbished Burkes return to service less reliable than before.
海军已经发现,许多理想的DDG-1000新技术都不会适合“伯克”级,即使是较大的Flight III型也是如此。“伯克”级(Burke)扩展计划也应该远离过分雄心勃勃的(并且不可行且预算过高)新技术。坚持已知的做法,不要给造船厂延迟工作和增加成本的机会。专注于质量控制,不要让进入服役翻新过的“伯克”级比以前的不可靠。
Above all the navy does not want yet another ship design and construction disaster. There have been too many of those in the last few decades including the Seawolf SSN, the LCS “frigate” and the new Ford class CVN. There were several other near-disasters and some successes. But too many U.S. Navy ship design and constructions projects were like the DDG-1000 Zumwalt Class. Also known as DD-21 or DD-X this design was too large and too ambitious to be a successful destroyer, The Zumwalts had a stealthy superstructure and were as big as a battleship, at least a state-of-the-art battleship from a century earlier. The DDG 1000 is a 14,000 ton ship, 194 meters (600 feet) long, and 25.5 meters (79 feet) wide. The crew of 150 sailors operates a variety of weapons, including two 155mm guns, two 40mm automatic cannons for close in defense, 80 Vertical Launch Tubes (containing either anti-ship, cruise or anti-aircraft missiles), six torpedo tubes, a helicopter, and three helicopter UAVs. The cruiser version (CGN, as Congress has mandated that these be nuclear powered) would drop one of the 155mm guns, as well as the torpedo tubes, but carry more vertical cells for missiles (especially anti-ballistic missile missiles). These would be a 20-25,000 ton ships.
最重要的是,海军不想再造成船舶设计和建造的灾难。在过去的几十年中,包括“海狼”级(Seawolf) SSN,LCS“战斗舰”和新的“福特”级CVN在内的种类太多了。还有其他几场灾难和一些成功。但是太多的美国海军舰船设计和建造项目就像“朱姆沃尔特”级DDG-1000型。该设计也被称为DD-21或DD-X,它太大了,而且太雄心勃勃,无法成为成功的驱逐舰。“朱姆沃尔特”级具有隐身的上层结构,大小和一艘战舰一样大,至少是一个世纪以来一艘来自美国的最先进战舰。DDG 1000是一艘排水量14,000吨的舰艇,长194米(600英尺),宽25.5米(79英尺)。 150名船员的船员操作各种武器,包括两座155毫米舰炮,两座40毫米自动近程防御舰炮,80个垂直发射管(包含反舰,巡航或防空导弹),六具鱼雷管,一架直升机和三架无人直升机。巡洋舰型号(CGN,根据国会的要求,它们必须是核动力的)会去除其中一门155毫米火炮以及鱼雷管,但会携带更多用于导弹(尤其是弹道导弹)的垂发单元。这些将是一艘20-25,000吨的舰艇。
Many other nations do not have the procurement problems the U.S. Navy is suffering from. But attempts to fix the procurement mess constantly run into political opposition. Now the United States is faced with the embarrassing example of China building similar ships more quickly, at much less cost and apparently up to world class quality standards. There are lessons to be learned here and the navy is still trying to do that in a timely and cost-effective fashion.

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