Logistics China Builds A Bigger Servron

后勤:中国建造更大的补给舰队

Date:2016-09-04 Source:strategypage By:Globalmil Viewed:


Without much publicity China has built its first Type 901 replenishment ship. This is the largest (over 40,000 tons) replenishment ship China has produced so far and similar in size and capability to the twelve American T-AKE replenishment ships. The 40,000 ton T-AKEs service a much larger fleet than the eight (so far) 25,000 ton Type 903s and are part of a larger replenishment fleet required by American warships operating worldwide. But China has been expanding its replenishment ship force as it puts more warships into service. The Type 901 apparently has a top speed of 45 kilometers an hour (to keep up with a carrier task force) and room topside for two or more CIWS autocannon (similar to the American Phalanx) for anti-missile defense. At least one more Type 901 appears to be planned but the Chinese usually wait until a new ship type has a year or so at sea before more are ordered. 
没有太多的宣传,中国已建造了第一艘901型补给船。这是至今中国制造最大的(40000吨以上)补给船,在规模和性能美国12艘T-AKE型干货弹药船相似。40000吨T-AKE服务更大的舰队超过八艘(到目前为止)25000吨型903型综合补给舰并且是美国军舰全球运作所需一个大的补给舰队中的一部分。但中国一直在扩大其补给船的力量,因为它使更多的军舰投入服役。901型显然有每小时45公里的最高航速(跟上一个航母特混舰队)和船舱顶部的两个或两个以上近距离武器系统(CIWS)自动近防炮(类似于美国的密集阵系统)用于导弹防御。至少有一个更多的901型计划,但中国人通常会等到一个新的船型在海上一年左右,才有更多的订购。

 
Meanwhile other types of Chinese supply ships are appearing. In early 2016 China revealed a new, smaller (2,700 ton) replenishment ship for its growing number of island bases in the South China Sea. This is a RO/RO (Roll On/Roll Off) type ship so it is easier to drive vehicles off onto the docks being built on many of these tiny (some man-made) islands. The new ship also has a helicopter pad for small (four ton) helicopters like the Z-9. One of these new ships appeared in late 2015 and apparently more are being built. They will replace the collection of commercial ships currently used to resupply these island bases.
同时其他类型的中国补给舰正在出现。在2016年年初中国透露了一种新的,更小的(2700吨)补给船其越来越多的在中国南海的岛屿基地。这是一种RO/ RO(Roll On/Roll Off,滚装船)船舶的类型,因此更容易驾驶车辆离开码头到正在兴建许多这些微小的(有些人造)岛屿上。新船也有一个直升机停机坪用于小型(4吨)直升机像Z-9型。其中一艘新船出现在2015年年底并且显然正在建造更多的船只。他们将取代目前征用的商业船只目前用于补给这些岛屿基地。
 
Meanwhile China has eight of its 23,000 ton Type 903A replenishment ships in service. During the first half of 2015 four of these ships were under construction simultaneously, a rare event for any country in peacetime. Since 2013 there has been a massive acceleration in the production of these ships. The first two of these tanker/cargo ships appeared in 2004. By 2008 these ships were regularly at sea supporting the task forces (each with at least two warships, plus the Type 903) sent to the anti-piracy patrol off Somalia for six month tours. The replenishment ship did just that, supplying fuel, water, food, and other supplies as needed. The replenishment ship would go to local ports to restock its depleted stores and return to the task force. China needed more Type 903s support the growing number of long distance training operations into the Western Pacific and the government has responded. One reason Chinese warships are now being seen all over the world (on official visits and to show off) is because there are enough replenishment ships to support this sort of thing.
与此同时,中国有八艘23000吨903A型补给船。在2015年上半年这些船只中的四艘正在同步建造,在和平时期任何国家的一个罕见的事件。自2013年起出现了大规模加速建造这些舰艇。这些油轮/货船的前两艘出现在2004年,到2008年时,这些船经常在海上支援任务舰队(每个至少有两艘军舰,加上903型)派遣到索马里为期六个月的反海盗巡逻行程。补给船只是做了,根据需要供应燃料,水,食物和其他物资。补给船都会去当地的港口补充其耗尽的贮存和回到任务舰队。中国需要更多的903型支持越来越多的远距离训练操作进入西太平洋和政府回应。其中一个原因,现在中国军舰被看到在世界各地(进行正式访问,并炫耀)是因为有足够的补给船来支持这样的事情。
 
Meanwhile China has, since the 1990s, trained more and more of its sailors to resupply ships at sea. It’s now common to see a Chinese supply ship in the Western Pacific refueling two warships at once. This is a tricky maneuver and the Chinese did not learn to do it overnight. They have been doing this more and more over the last decade, first refueling one ship at a time with the receiving ship behind the supply ship and then the trickier side-by-side method. This enables skilled supply ship crews to refuel two ships at once.
同时中国,自上世纪90年代以来,训练越来越多的水手在海上补给船。现在看到一艘中国补给船在西太平洋上一次为两艘军舰加油是很普遍的。这是一个复杂的技巧但中国人没有学会在一夜之间做到它。在过去的十年中他们一直这样越来越多的做,补给舰为后面的接收船最初逐次为一艘中途加油然后
这种复杂的并排方法。这使熟练的补给舰人员立即补充两艘船。
 
China got a sharp reminder of how essential the replenishment ships are in April 2014 when they joined the international military effort to find missing flight MH370. China discovered it did not have enough Type 903s and without access to foreign ports for resupply the Chinese Navy could not sustain large numbers of ships far from China. Chinese naval planners have long warned of this and the political leaders are now paying more attention. China sent two dozen warships and support vessels into the southern Indian Ocean in April 2014 and it was obvious that without access to nearby Australian ports the Chinese ships would not have been able to remain in the area for long.
中国得到的补给船是多么重要在2014年4月一个尖锐的提醒,当他们加入国际军事行动寻找失踪航班MH370时。中国发现它没有足够的903型并且没有为中国海军获得外国港口补给不能离中国很远之处维持大量的船舶。中国海军规划者早就警告过和现在的政治领导人正在关注更多的问题。在2014年4月中国派出两打(24艘)军舰和辅助船只进入南印度洋,这是显而易见的,如果不前往附近的澳大利亚港口中国船只无法一直能长时间留在该地区。
 
The classic solution to this problem is a large fleet of support (“sustainment”) ships to constantly deliver food, fuel and other supplies to ships at sea. China is rapidly building such ships, but not enough of them to maintain a large force for an extended period. China is unlikely to obtain the overseas ports it needs to support its current expansion plans because Chinese expansion plans have angered nearly all the nations in area. China does have a few allies, like Pakistan, Cambodia and Burma. This would not be enough if it came to outright hostilities and some of these friendly ports blocked by neighboring countries that are at odds with China. This apparently led to the decision to built the Type 903.
这个问题的经典解决方案是一个庞大的舰队支援(“持续”)船舶不断运送食物、燃料和其他物资到海上的船只。中国正在迅速建造这样的船只,但他们没有足够的力量来维持大舰队较长时间。中国不可能获得海外港口,它需要支持其目前的扩张计划,因为中国的扩张计划激怒了相关地区某些国家。中国确实有几个盟友,如巴基斯坦、柬埔寨和缅甸。这将是不够的,如果它过来直接对抗,其中一些友好邻国在与中国意见相左时封锁港口。这显然导致了决定建立903型。
 
This logistical weakness is no secret but the Chinese have long played it down. After the April 2014 MH370 operation it became a much more visible issue. Chinese naval threats are now a bit less intimidating, until there are reports that China is building more sustainment ships than it already is. That is apparently happening.
这个后勤的弱点是没有秘密的,但中国人长期以来一直假装不知。2014年4月MH370行动后它成为一个更加明显的问题。中国海军的威胁,现在有点不太吓人,直到有报道说中国正在建造更多的支援船只。这显然正在发生。
 
This is all part of a Chinese navy effort to enable its most modern ships to carry out long duration operations. In addition to the ships sent to Somalia, the Chinese have been sending flotillas (containing landing ships, destroyers, and frigates) on 10-20 day cruises into the East China Sea and beyond. The MH370 search off west Australia was the largest Chinese fleet deployment in modern times.
这是中国海军努力的一部分,使其最现代化的舰艇进行持续长时间的行动。除了派往索马里的船只,中国已派遣舰队(包括登陆舰、驱逐舰和护卫舰上)进入东中国海和更远之处进行10-20天巡航。MH370搜索了西澳大利亚是近代中国最大的舰队部署。
 
The Chinese have been working hard on how to use their new classes of supply ships. These are built to efficiently supply ships at sea. In addition to learning how to transfer these supplies at sea the crews have also learned how to keep all the needed supplies in good shape and stocked in the required quantities. This requires the procurement officers learning how to arrange resupply at local ports in a timely basis. This was particularly important off Somalia, where warships often had to speed up (burning a lot of fuel in the process) or use their helicopters to deal with the pirates.
中国人一直在努力如何使用他们的新补给船。建造这些是为了有效地供应海上的船只。除了学习如何将这些物资转移到海上,船员们还学会了如何保持所有需要的物品处于良好状态,并储备了所需的数量。这就要求采购人员学习如何及时在当地港口安排补给。这在索马里特别重要,在那里的军舰往往不得不加快(燃烧大量燃料的过程中)或使用他们的直升机来对付海盗。
 
Modern at-sea replenishment methods were developed out of necessity by the United States during World War II because of a lack of sufficient forward bases in the vast Pacific. The resulting service squadrons (Servrons) became a permanent fixture in the U.S. Navy after the war. Ships frequently stay at sea for up to six months at a time, being resupplied at sea by a Servron. New technologies were developed to support the effective use of the seagoing supply service. Few other navies have been able to match this capability, mainly because of the expense of the Servron ships and the training required to do at sea replenishment. China is buying into this capability, which makes their fleet more effective because warships can remain at sea for longer periods.
在第二次世界战期间美国开发出必要的现代海上补给方法,因为在广阔的太平洋中缺乏足够的前进基地。由此产生的服务中队(Servrons)成为战后美国海军永久固定类别。船舶经常在海上逗留了长达半年的时间,由Servron海上补给。新技术开发,以支持有效利用航海供应服务。很少有其他国家的海军能够匹配这种能力主要是因为Servron船舶的费用和海上补给要求培训这种能力。中国正在购置到这种能力,这使得他们的舰队更有效,因为军舰可以在海上停留更长的时间。

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