Type 096 ballistic missile submarine


Date:2020-05-04 Source:Globalsecurity By:Globalmil Viewed:

The Type 096 ballistic missile submarine [Tang class, Chinese designation: 09-VI] is the Chinese equivalent of the American Ohio class submarine. According to the US Department of Defense's Annual Report to Congress on The Military Power of the People's Republic of China for 2013, "The PLA Navy places a high priority on the modernization of its submarine force. China continues the production of JIN-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBN). Three JIN-class SSBNs (Type 094) are currently operational, and up to five may enter service before China proceeds to its next generation SSBN (Type 096) over the next decade."
中国096型弹道导弹潜艇(唐(Tang)级,中文名称:09-VI)与美国俄亥俄级潜艇相当。 根据美国国防部向国会提交的2013年中华人民共和国军事力量年度报告,“解放军海军高度重视其潜艇现代化。中国继续建造“晋”(JIN)级核动力弹道导弹潜艇(SSBN)。目前,已有3艘“晋”级SSBN(094型)开始服役,在未来十年内,中国将有多达5艘SSBN服役。

Presumably the Type 096 will be rather larger than the Type 094, and carry a larger number of missiles, but otherwise be of conventional design. It will be the quietest, most heavily-armed submarine the Chinese Navy has ever built. The design will incorporate technological advancements to provide improvement in ship quieting; improved acoustic sensors; more capable combat systems; greater weapon capacity and capability; improved performance machinery program; and enhanced survivability.
推测096型将比094型大得多,并携带更多的导弹,但在其他方面是常规设计。这将是中国海军建造的最安静,武器最全的潜艇。该设计将综合技术进步,以改善舰艇的静音性;改进的声音传感器;更有能力的作战系统;更优异的武器性能和能力;改进性能的机械程序; 并提高了生存能力。

The past few decades of submarine hydrodynamic evolution have resulted in a ship of teardrop shape with unobstructed skin. The fact that a modern submarine resembles an airplane is not a coincidence. Underwater the submarine maneuvers much like an aircraft. It dives, climbs, banks and turns by manipulating control surfaces. These control surfaces are a vertical rudder aft and horizontal diving planes forward and aft. There is a fixed fin forward, commonly referred to as fairwater, or simply the sail. The outer hull at the bow houses major sonar equipment and forms the nose of the teardrop. The parallel middle body houses all the equipment required for control, stability, propulsion, and weapon systems. The after end of the outer hull tapers to a point, providing a hydrodynamically effective flow path to the stern control planes and the propeller.
在过去的几十年中,流体动力学演变导致形成了水滴状且表面无阻的舰艇外形。现代潜艇类似于飞机的事实并非巧合。水下潜艇的操纵就像飞机一样。 它通过操纵操纵舵面来潜水,上浮,倾斜和转弯。这些控制面是垂直尾舵和前后水平潜水舵面。有一个固定的前鳍,通常称为指挥台围壳,或简称为舰桥。艇艏的外部船体中装有主要的声纳设备,形成了水滴状的艇艏。平行的中间主艇体容纳了控制,稳定,推进和武器系统所需的所有设备。外部艇体的尾端逐渐变细,从而为艇尾的控制舵面和螺旋桨提供了流体动力学有效的流动路径。

All Chinese [and U.S.] submarines are powered by a pressurized water reactor (PWR) coupled to a steam turbine. Although, it may no longer be the most efficient and compact system technology, the PWR design has a long history of safe, reliable operation. Torque generated by the steam turbine is transmitted to the screw by the propulsion train (reduction gear and shafting). Other power trains are possible.
所有中国(和美国)潜艇均由与蒸汽轮机和压水反应堆(PWR)耦合驱动。尽管它可能不再是最高效,最紧凑的系统技术,但PWR设计具有悠久的安全,可靠的运行历史。蒸汽轮机产生的扭矩通过传动系统(减速齿轮和轴系)传递到螺旋桨。 其他动力传动系统也是可能的。

The USS NARWHAL (SSN-671) was the quietest of submarines at the time of her commissioning, the result of a natural circulation reactor. One S8G pressurised water cooled natural-circulation reactor powering two geared turbines to a single shaft. In the ultra-quiet natural circulation reactor design. This allows for operation with the large water circulating pumps, a major source of radiated noise, secured. In the natural-circulation reactor, in order to secure a natural circulation flow rate, a pressure vessel of the reactor may be arranged with an axial long length and a reactor core is arranged at a relatively lower position within the pressure vessel of the reactor so as to form a large free space called a chimney over the reactor core.
美国海军“独角鲸”(NARWHAL)(SSN-671)号是自然循环反应堆的结果,是在调试时最安静的潜艇。一个S8G型压水冷却自然循环反应堆,为两个齿轮涡轮机提供单轴动力。在超静音自然循环反应堆中进行设计。 这样可以确保使用大型水循环泵(固定的主要辐射噪声源)进行操作。在自然循环反应堆中,为了确保自然循环流量,反应堆的压力容器可以轴向长度布置,并且反应堆的堆芯布置在反应堆的压力容器内的相对较低的位置,从而在反应堆堆芯上形成一个称为热量排放通道的大自由空间。

The natural-circulation reactor does not include a re-circulation pump inside the reactor (internal pump) and a reactor re-circulation system (including a re-circulation pump outside the reactor and a jet pump) unlike a forced-circulation reactor, so that the fluid within a reactor pressure vessel is not to be forced-circulated by the recirculation pump inside the reactor. In the natural-circulation reactor, the natural circulation flow rate is determined in accordance with the balance of a density difference between a downcomer part and the reactor core.

Fast neutron reactors (FNR) are smaller and simpler than light water types, they have better fuel performance and can have a longer refueling interval (up to 20 years), but a new safety case needs to be made for them, at least in the West. They are designed to use the full energy potential of uranium, rather than about one percent of it that conventional power reactors use. They have no moderator, a higher neutron flux and are normally cooled by liquid metal such as sodium, lead, or lead-bismuth, with high conductivity and boiling point. They operate at or near atmospheric pressure and have passive safety features (most have convection circulating the primary coolant). Automatic power regulation is achieved due to the reactivity feedback – loss of coolant flow leads to higher core temperature which slows the reaction. Fast reactors typically use boron carbide control rods.Fuels are mostly 15-20% enriched and may be uranium nitride – UN, (U,Pu)N, (U,transuranic)N, U-Zr, or (U,Pu)Zr. Most coolants are liquid metal, either sodium, which is flammable and reacts violently with water, or lead/lead-bismuth, which is corrosive but does not react with air or water.

By one Chinese acccount, the 096 Tang class submarine is about 150 meters long (094 was 140 meters), about 20 meters wide [obviously wrong, 094 to 12.5 meters], with a full displacement maximum displacement of 20,000 tonnes (12,000 tons 094), or at least in more than 16,000 tons. The ship's shape approximates an elongated drop-type, double-shell design. Weapons include six 533-mm bow torpedo tubes. Preparation torpedoes are 24 passive acoustic homing torpedoes. The 533-mm Thunderbolt using different off-site remote control or automatic start to protect the submarine. The position to avoid counter weapons also includes active air curtain noise bombs.
一个中国来源的消息,096型“唐”级潜艇长约150米(094型为140米),宽约20米(显然是错误的,094型宽度12.5米),最大排水量为20,000吨(094型12,000吨),或至少超过16,000吨。潜艇的形状近似于拉长水滴型双壳设计。武器包括六具533毫米艇艏鱼雷发射管。预备的鱼雷是24枚被动声导引鱼雷。533毫米“雷电”( Thunderbolt )反鱼雷鱼雷使用不同的异地远程控制或自动启动来保护潜艇。避让对抗武器的位置还包括主动气幕噪声弹。

The power plant may be two integrated pressurized water nuclear reactors and two steam turbines, with a pump-jet propulsion mode. The maximum speed should be up to about 32 knots. In addition, because the hull shell using high-strength alloy steel, so its potential can reach a depth of 600 meters. As for the most troublesome noise problem of the submarine, the ship has special treatment, in addition to the installation of shock absorber base in the noise source and in the ship shell application of high-performance silencer tiles. The ship also takes initiative to reduce the noise device, making this ship Underwater noise is greatly reduced, only 95-100 dB, well below the 094 submarine 115 dB. Compared to the already deployed 092 and 094 submarines, 096 submarine indeed has great performance. It is larger, less noise, and equipped with more missiles to carry more warheads. In the latest batch of 096 strategic nuclear submarines built, China has fixed many of the design flaws, its performance has been greatly improved.
动力装置可能是两个一体化压水核反应堆和两台蒸汽轮机,采用泵喷射推进模式。最大航速应该达到32节左右。另外,由于艇体外壳采用高强度合金钢,因此其潜水能力可以达到600米的深度。对于潜艇最棘手的噪音问题,除在噪音源中安装减震器底座以及在船舶外壳中使用高性能消音瓦外,该艇还经过特殊处理。该艇还包括主动降噪装置,使这艘潜艇的水下噪音大大降低,仅为95-100 dB,远低于094型潜艇的115 dB。与已经部署的092型和094型潜艇相比,096型潜艇确实具有出色的性能。它更大,噪音更低,并且装备了更多的导弹来携带更多的弹头。在最新建造的096型战略核潜艇中,中国修复了许多设计缺陷,其性能得到了极大提高。

The 2017 Annual Report to the US Congress on China's military power by the US Defense Department claims that China's next-generation nuclear submarine, Type 096, will likely begin construction in the early 2020s, and will reportedly be armed with the JL-3, a submarine-based ballistic missile. "Pentagon's prediction about Type 096 could be correct to some extent, but the submarine could be completed ahead of schedule. The submarine is a key weapon to the country's nuclear warfare capability. Only the US and Russia have the real 'nuclear triad' (consisting of ballistic missiles, strategic nuclear submarines and strategic bombers), but sooner or later, China will have it as well," said Li Jie, a Beijing-based naval expert told Global Times 20 September 2017.

A new nuclear submarine has been turned over to the People's Liberation Army Navy, one of the largest State-owned naval shipbuilding enterprises revealed on 21 September 2017, but experts believe that this submarine is not the most advanced Type 096, which is China's next generation strategic nuclear submarine.

China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC), which also manufactures China's aircraft carrier, posted the information on its WeChat account Tuesday in an article reviewing its achievements since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2012. "The past five years since the 18th National Congress of the CPC has been an extraordinary period for the CSIC, with the handover of China's first aircraft carrier Liaoning to the PLA Navy, the launch of the first homegrown aircraft carrier, the completion of the new nuclear submarine and the deep-sea-exploration submersible Jiaolong…"the article said.

However, the article did not reveal the submarine's name and type. But some military observers speculated the submarine is Type 096, China's most advanced nuclear submarine, and the successor of the current Type 094, which first appeared on China Central Television in 2013. The submarine the CSIC mentioned could be Type 094 or Type 093, but not the next generation nuclear-powered ballistic submarine Type 096, since Type 096 is too advanced and not to be completed soon, Song Zhongping, a military expert who served in the PLA Rocket Force, told the Global Times.

"The Pentagon's prediction about Type 096 could be correct to some extent, but the submarine could be completed ahead of schedule. The submarine is a key weapon to the country's nuclear warfare capability. Only the US and Russia have the real 'nuclear triad' (consisting of ballistic missiles, strategic nuclear submarines and strategic bombers), but sooner or later, China will have it as well," said Li Jie, a Beijing-based naval expert.

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