Winning: Chinese Fleet Is The Biggest

获胜:中国舰队是最大的

Date:2020-10-05 Source:strategypage By:Globalmil Viewed:


October 4, 2020: American intel estimates of Chinese naval power believe the Chinese fleet is now larger than the United States fleet of 293 major warships. The U.S. Navy still has a considerable edge in tonnage, manpower, firepower and experience. China plans to close all those gaps by mid-century. China is doing this by building modern ships faster and in larger quantities than the U.S. is capable of. Moreover, the Chinese build them on time and apparently under budget. China also sends those ships to sea frequently in an effort to close the crew skill gap.
2020年10月4日:美国情报机构对中国海军实力的估计认为,中国舰队将要比美国现有的293艘主要战舰舰队还要大。美国海军在吨位,人力,火力和经验上仍具有相当大的优势。中国计划在本世纪中叶之前消除所有这些差距。中国正在通过建造比美国有能力的更快和更大数量的现代化舰艇来做到这一点。而且,中国人按时建造了它们,显然是在预算内。 中国还经常派出这些舰艇出海,以缩小船员的技能差距。

This massive and speedy fleet expansion began in the 1990s and by 2015 was obviously succeeding. What was remarkable about this was that China was creating a navy unlike any that China has ever had before. This is a high-seas, or “blue water”, fleet. In the past China only possessed a coastal force but that has changed. That was pretty obvious when the Chinese Navy released a new recruiting video in mid-2015. This one showed large new Chinese warships operating far from China. The crews were depicted as young, bright and dedicated. China needed to attract high-quality men (and some women) to make these ships work. That had proved difficult at first because China has no tradition of making a career in a navy that spends a lot of time far from home. In response the navy began spending a lot of money and effort to create an image of the navy as a modern and exciting place for smart young Chinese to be. This effort was not as successful as desired but it did bring in a lot of what the navy was looking for. This was unusual because it is well known that the Chinese military has always had a hard time attracting the smartest and most capable young Chinese to serve, especially for long periods.
庞大而迅速的舰队扩张始于1990年,到2015年显然取得了成功。与此不同的是,中国正在创造一支海军,这是中国从未有过的。这是一个公海或“蓝水”舰队。过去,中国只拥有一支沿海力量,但情况已经改变。当中国海军在2015年中期发布新的征募视频时,这一点非常明显。这是一艘新的大型中国战舰,在远离中国的地方作战。船员被描绘为年轻,聪明和敬业。中国需要吸引高素质的男人(和一些女人)来使这些船只运转。起初,这被证明是困难的,因为中国海军没有度过一段远离家乡很长时间的海军生涯的传统。作为回应,海军开始投入大量金钱和精力来打造海军形象,使之成为聪明的中国年轻人现代化和激动人心的地方。这项努力没有如预期的那样成功,但确实带来了海军想要的很多东西。这是不寻常的,因为众所周知,中国军方一直很难吸引最聪明,最有能力的年轻中国人服役,特别是长期以来。

China is having fewer problems building the ships it needs for this new fleet. This became evident in 2014 as China began building, launched or put into commission over sixty vessels. From that point on the plan was to continue building at that pace into the early 2020s. The 2014 naval building plans included several aircraft carriers, 26 destroyers, 52 frigates, 20 corvettes, 85 missile armed patrol boats, 56 amphibious vessels, 42 mine warfare ships and nearly 500 auxiliary craft of which ten percent are large seagoing ships. While a lot of these new ships are to replace older, Cold War era, Russia designs, all new construction is based on Western designs and built to operate long distances from China. Naval air power is also being expanded with additional helicopters, modern fighters, missile carrying bombers and long-range UAVs. China is also building more diesel-electric submarines and continuing to perfect (get to work properly) its nuclear powered subs.
中国在创造这个新舰队所需的舰艇上遇到的问题越来越少。随着中国开始建造,下水或投入服役六十多艘船舶,这一点在2014年变得显而易见。从那时起,计划就是以这种速度继续建设到2020年初。2014年的海军建设计划包括几艘航空母舰,26艘驱逐舰,52艘护卫舰,20艘护卫舰,85艘导弹巡逻艇,56艘两栖舰,42艘扫雷舰和近500艘辅助船只,其中百分之十是大型远洋舰。尽管这些新舰艇中的许多都是用来替换旧的冷战时期(由俄罗斯设计)的舰艇,但所有新造舰艇都是以西方设计为基础,并且可以在距中国很远的地方建造。海军空中力量也正在通过增加直升机,现代化战斗机,携带导弹的轰炸机和远程无人机来扩充。中国还在建造更多的柴电潜艇,并继续完善(使其正常工作)核动力潜艇。

By 2020 the Chinese fleet had (in active service) two aircraft carriers, 75 subs, including seven SSBNs (nuclear ballistic missile subs), eight SSNs (nuclear attack subs), 60 SSK (non-nuclear attack subs). There are 300 surface warships including 50 destroyers, 49 frigates, 71 corvettes, 109 missile boats, 94 small ASW (anti-submarine warfare) ships and 17 gunboats. There are 75 amphibious ships including (in order of size) two LHDs, eight LPDs, 32 LSTs and 33 LSMs. There are 287 support ships including 36 mine clearing vessels, 19 oilers (for refueling ships far from a base), 30 coastal oilers, 27 fleet supply ships (for resupply at sea), six troop transports and a lot of harbor, training and medical support ships as well as intelligence collection ships, hospital ships, submarine rescue ships. The Chinese navy has also made arrangements with the operators of over fifty civilian cargo ships and ferries to make their vessels quickly available in the event of a major emergency. That comes to 743 active ships with over sixty percent combat ships and the rest support vessels. That support force is the true mark of a major high-seas fleet.
到2020年,中国舰队(现役)拥有两艘航空母舰,75艘潜艇,其中包括7艘核弹道导弹潜艇(SSBN),8艘核攻击潜艇(SSN),60艘常规攻击潜艇(SSK)。拥有300艘水面战舰,包括50艘驱逐舰,49艘护卫舰,71艘护卫艇,109艘导弹艇,94艘小型猎潜(ASW)艇和17艘炮艇。有75艘两栖舰,按大小排列,包括2艘两栖攻击舰(LHD),8艘两栖船坞运输舰(LPD),32艘战车登陆舰(LST)和33艘中型登陆舰(LSM)。共有287艘支援船,包括36艘扫雷舰,19艘油料补给船(用于向远离基地的船只补给油料),30艘沿海油料补给船,27艘舰队补给舰(用于海上补给),6艘运兵舰以及大量港口,训练和医疗支援船以及情报收集船,医疗船,潜艇救援船。中国海军还与五十多艘民用货船和渡轮的经营者进行了安排,以在发生重大紧急情况时迅速提供其船只。这涉及到743艘现役舰艇,其中超过百分之六十是战斗舰和其余是支援舰。这种支持力量是大型公海舰队的真正标志。

China has left its Cold War era ship designs behind and is copying Western ships. So are the Russians, but not as competently as the Chinese. Nor can the Russians build dozens of new warships a year and have them operate reliably. American intel collecting aircraft, ships and satellites monitor sea trials for new Russian and Chinese ships and note that the Chinese are doing much better. Now the largest fleet in the world is Chinese and it is looking to be a far more dangerous adversary than the Soviet fleet ever was.
中国抛弃了冷战时期的船舶设计,并且在模仿西方的船舶。俄国人也是如此,但不如中国人。俄国人也不能每年建造数十艘新军舰并使它们可靠运行。美国情报收集飞机,船只和卫星监视俄罗斯和中国新舰的试航,并指出中国人的情况要好得多。现在,世界上最大的舰队是中国人,它看起来比苏联的舰队要危险得多。

The Chinese ability to build new warships quickly is remarkable. This applies to their largest ships (carriers and carrier-like amphibious ships). This speed and quantity was first demonstrated with their new destroyers.
中国快速建造新战舰的能力是惊人的。这适用于它们最大的船只(航母和类似航母的两栖船)。这种速度和数量首先在他们的新型驱逐舰上得到了证明。


In late 2019 China launched its sixth Type 55 class destroyer. One is already in service with another five expected to follow in the next few years. These 12,000-ton warships are comparable to the late model American Arleigh Burke class and is in fact a bit larger and more heavily armed with similar weapons. The Type 55 is more similar in size to the failed American 15,000-ton Zumwalt class destroyer. The Zumwalt contained too many new technologies that proved too expensive and too unpredictable to put into service. The U.S. Navy kept spending more money on development in a futile effort to get the Zumwalt to work and the effort was canceled, with only three Zumwalts built and only at the end of 2020 were all of fully operational.
2019年底,中国下水了第六艘055型驱逐舰。其中一艘已经服役,未来五年内还将有五艘服役。这种12,000吨的军舰可与美国阿利·伯克(Arleigh Burke)型号媲美,实际上更大一些,而且配备了类似武器。 055型与失败的美国15,000吨朱姆沃尔特级(Zumwalt)驱逐舰的尺寸更相似。朱姆沃尔特级包含了太多的新技术,这些新技术被证明过于昂贵且难以预测,因此无法投入使用。美国海军为了使朱姆沃尔特级投入工作而徒劳地努力,继续在发展上投入更多资金,但这项努力被取消了,只建造了三艘朱姆沃尔特级,直到2020年底才全部投入使用。

The Type 55 is also similar to the American Ticonderoga class cruisers, which are 10,000-ton ships based on 1970s and 80s technology that paved the way for the Burkes. From 1980 to 1994 twenty-seven Ticonderogas were built and 22 are still in service. The Ticonderogas, like the Burkes, were based on the successful Spruance class destroyers. The success of the 31 Spruances, built between 1972 and 1983, led to Burke class, which has been in production since 1988 with 67 in service, five under construction and orders for at least ten more planned. The latest version of the Burke is nearly as large as the Ticonderogas and in many ways more capable. This is apparently what the Chinese are trying to do with the Type 55. Despite using proven (by the Americans) technologies the Chinese had some problems getting the Type 55s into service. That is not unusual and has become an accepted part of how the Chinese develop new warship designs.
055型还类似于美国的提康德罗加级(Ticonderoga)级巡洋舰,它们是基于1970年和80年技术的10,000吨级船舶,为伯克级(Burkes)铺平了道路。从1980年到1994年,建造了27艘提康德罗加级(Ticonderogas),其中22艘仍在服役。像伯克级一样,提康德罗加斯也基于成功的斯普鲁恩斯级级(Spruance)驱逐舰。 在1972年至1983年之间建造的31艘斯普鲁恩斯级级(Spruances)取得了成功,导致了伯克级(Burke),该级自1988年以来一直在建造,其中67艘在役,五艘在建,并且至少计划再订购10艘。伯克级(Burke)的最新型号几乎与提康德罗加级(Ticonderogas)一样大,并且在许多方面都更加强大。这显然是中国人正在尝试的055型。尽管使用(经过美国人验证的)技术,中国人在使055型投入使用时仍存在一些问题。 这并不罕见,已经成为中国人开发新军舰设计的一部分。

The first Type 055 destroyer was launched in June 2017. This was not unexpected because evidence of such a ship (Internet photos of ship mockups for training and chatter about that) began showing up in early 2015. Back then it appeared that this new (Type 055) 12,000-ton cruiser class ship would have as many as 128 VLS (vertical launch system) tubes and much else besides. China claimed this ship would be the equivalent of a Burke class destroyer. The Type 055 would be, and now is, the largest surface combat ship China has ever built. The Type 55 turned out to have 112 American type VLS cells as well as an Aegis type radar system and four locally built gas-turbine engines. These engines provide 150,000 horsepower and a top speed of 55 kilometers an hour. There are also six generators producing 30 megawatts of power for future weapons like rail guns and lasers. Also carried are hangers for two helicopters.
第一艘055型驱逐舰于2017年6月下水。这并不出乎意料,因为这种船只的证据(用于讨论和聊天的舰船模型互联网照片)于2015年初开始出现。055型12,000吨级巡洋舰将拥有多达128个VLS(垂直发射系统)管,此外还有许多其他发射管。中国声称这艘船相当于伯克级驱逐舰。055型将是(现在是)中国迄今为止建造的最大的水面战舰。事实证明,055型拥有112个美式VLS单元,一套“宙斯盾”式雷达系统和四个本国制造的燃气涡轮发动机。这些发动机可提供150,000马力的动力,最高时速可达每小时55公里。还有六台发电机产生30兆瓦的功率,用于未来的武器,如轨道炮和激光。还有悬挂装置用于携带两架直升机。

Before 2015 the then new Type 52 destroyers were described as similar to the Burkes but in reality, the Type 052s were “Burke Lite” while the Type 55 is much closer to the Burkes in capabilities and, at least on paper, surpasses the American ships in some ways. It was believed that the first Type 055 would enter service in early 2018 and the sea trials would be closely watched by foreign navies. This is usually very revealing about what works and what doesn’t. The Chinese have, so far, been quite persistent in fixing flaws discovered during sea trials and regular operations and that makes the new Chinese ship designs rather more frightening. It is not unusual for new Chinese ships to go through years, rather than weeks or months of sea trials and keep looking for and fixing problems until the ship is ready. Sometimes it isn’t and, in those cases, you see only one or two of those ships built as the designers start again. This approach can take a long time but it has worked for the Chinese.
在2015年之前,当时的新型052型驱逐舰被描述为与伯克级(Burkes)类似,但实际上,052型是“ 低配伯克(Burke Lite)”,而055型在能力上更接近于伯克级(Burkes),并且至少在纸面上超过了美国舰船。在某些方面。据信,第一艘055型将在2018年初投入服役,海上试验将受到外国海军的密切关注。通常,这很能说明什么有效,哪些无效。到目前为止,中国人一直坚持不懈地修复在海试和常规操作中发现的缺陷,这使得中国新舰艇的设计更加令人可怕。中国的新舰艇要经过数年而不是数周或数月的试航,并在舰艇准备好之前不断寻找并解决问题,这并不罕见。有时并非如此,在这种情况下,当设计师重新开始设计时,您只会看到其中一艘或二艘的建造。这种方法可能需要很长时间,但对中国人却有效。

In fact the development program for the Type 55 began in the 1980s as China obtained, by purchase or espionage, sufficient modern technologies to build a Western type destroyer. The initial model was the American Spruance and the first two Type 52s were mainly for testing those new technologies. Two Type 52s appeared in the 1990s and only two of these 4,800-ton ships were built because these were for technology development. There followed two 6,100-ton Type 52Bs in 2004. At the same time six 6,500-ton Type 52C also began entering service and these turned out to have the right combination of successful technologies. That led, in 2014 to the 7,500-ton Type 52D and at least 20 of these are under construction or in service.
实际上,随着中国通过购买或间谍活动获得了足够的现代技术来建造西方类型驱逐舰,中国在1980年开始了055型的开发计划。最初的型号是美国斯普鲁恩斯级级(Spruance),而前两艘052型则主要用于测试这些新技术。在1990年出现的两艘052型,而这种4,800吨级舰艇只建造了两艘,因为它们是用于技术开发的。接着在2004年又有两艘6,100吨的052B型。同时有六艘6,500吨的52C型开始服役,这些都是成功技术的正确组合。这导致在2014年建造了7,500吨的52D型,其中至少有20艘正在建造或服役中。

By 2013 the first of the Chinese Type 52D destroyers was seen on sea trials in the East China Sea. This design appeared very similar to the American Aegis equipped destroyers (especially the Burke Class). Three versions of the Type 052 destroyer had, since 2001, advanced Chinese destroyer design considerably and China now has ships similar in capabilities to the Burke class destroyers. The first Burke entered service in 1991 and that ship became the new target for Chinese destroyer developers.
在2013年,中国第一艘52D型驱逐舰在东海试航。这种设计与美国装备宙斯盾的驱逐舰(尤其是伯克级)非常相似。自2001年以来,三个版本的052型驱逐舰在很大程度上提高了中国驱逐舰的设计水平,中国现在拥有与伯克级驱逐舰相似的能力。美国第一艘伯克号于1991年服役,这艘舰艇成为中国驱逐舰开发者的新目标。

Burke design is the culmination of over half a century of World War II and Cold War destroyer experience. Even after the Burke was designed, in the 1980s the design evolved. The first Burkes were 8,300-ton ships, while the latest ones, laden with more gear and smaller crews, are 10,000-ton ships. This is what heavy cruisers weighed in World War II. With a top speed of nearly 50 kilometers an hour, Burkes have a main armament of 90 VLS tubes flush with the deck that can contain anti-aircraft, anti-ship, anti-missile, or cruise missiles. There is also a 127mm (5 inch) gun, two 20mm anti-missile autocannon, 6 torpedo tubes, and two helicopters. The Burkes were well thought out, sturdy, and they got the job done. They became irreplaceable, and thus this class of warships will last more than half a century. China likes the sound of that and is trying to match the Burkes and proceeding in that direction one destroyer design at a time.
伯克级(Burke)设计是超过半个世纪的第二次世界大战和冷战驱逐舰经验的顶峰。即使在伯克级(Burke)设计出来之后,在20世纪80年代,设计还是在不断发展。第一艘伯克级(Burkes)是8,300吨舰艇,而最新的伯克级(Burkes)则是10,000吨舰艇,舰上装备更多的装备,船员人数更少。这是第二次世界大战中重型巡洋舰的重量。伯克级的最高时速接近每小时50公里,主要装备有90个VLS单元,与甲板齐平,可以容纳防空,反舰,反导或巡航导弹。另外还有一门127毫米(5英寸)舰炮,两门20毫米反导自动加农炮,6具鱼雷发射管和两架直升飞机。伯克级经过考虑周全,坚固耐用,完成了任务。它们变得不可替代,因此这类军舰将持续半个多世纪。中国喜欢这样的声音,并且正试图与伯克级(Burkes)相匹配,并朝着这个方向进行一次驱逐舰设计。

Since 2003 Type 052B, 052C and 52D destroyers have entered service. These ships were a deliberate effort to develop something similar to the U.S. Burkes. The Type 52D was considered a success and that made it possible to move forward with the more ambitious Type 55. You can see the similarities. The Type 52D is armed with 64 American style (hot launch) VLS tubes for anti-aircraft (HQ-9), cruise, or anti-ship missiles. The Type 55 is a larger version of the Type 52D but with more advanced versions of the weapons and electronics carried by the 52D. The 52D was also the first Chinese destroyer to use Chinese made gas-turbine engines. Over the last three decades China had acquired much of this gas-turbine tech from American designs and from Ukrainian gas-turbine manufacturers. Many Chinese destroyers still use Ukrainian gas-turbine power plants.
自2003年以来,052B,052C和52D型驱逐舰投入服役。这些战舰是为开发类似于美国伯克级的刻意努力。52D型被认为是成功的,它使雄心勃勃的055型得以前进。您可以看到相似之处。52D型装备有64个美国风格(热发射)VLS单元,用于防空(HQ-9),巡航导弹或反舰导弹。 055型是052D型的更大的型号,但具有52D携带的武器和电子设备的更高级型号。052D也是第一个使用中国制造的燃气涡轮发动机的中国驱逐舰。在过去的三十年中,中国从美国设计公司和乌克兰的燃气轮机制造商那里购买了许多这种燃气轮机技术。许多中国驱逐舰仍在使用乌克兰的燃气涡轮发动机。

The older Type 052B destroyers were general purpose ships with anti-ship/submarine/aircraft capabilities. Type 052C were the first to use cold launch VLS (Vertical Launch System) tubes.
较旧的052B型驱逐舰是具有反舰/潜艇/飞机能力的通用舰。052C型是最早使用冷发射VLS(垂直发射系统)单元的型号。

Around the same time two 7,100-ton Type 051C destroyers appeared. About the same size and displacement as the 052Cs but did not use the Western VLS system. The 051Cs were the first ships with an Aegis type radar.
大约在同一时间,出现了两艘7,100吨的051C型驱逐舰。 尺寸和排量与052C差不多但没有使用西方VLS系统。051C是首批配备“宙斯盾”雷达的舰艇。

All these new destroyer designs were leading to something that could match the Burkes, which also underwent many changes as new batches were ordered and older Burkes were usually upgraded with newer equipment found in later ones. China will copy foreign ideas and technology and keep building new versions until they get it right. They are relentless and often ultimately successful. That is more impressive than just building a lot of warships.
所有这些新的驱逐舰设计都导致了与伯克级(Burkes)匹配的东西,随着订购了新批次的驱逐舰,而且较旧的伯克级(Burkes)经过升级后通常会使用较新的装备,这些装备也进行了许多更改。中国将复制外国的思想和技术,并继续建造新版本,直到把它弄好为止。他们是不屈不挠,而且往往最终会成功。这比建造很多军舰更令人印象深刻。


China has expanded shipyard facilities to create facilities for mass producing major ships like carriers, destroyers and large amphibious vessels. One new yard appeared to be devoted to building aircraft carriers. Extensive infrastructure was erected around the new drydock and nearby kilometer long fitting out pier. This is something of a mass production operation with components of an aircraft carrier hull and pre-fabricated sections of the hull interior stored nearby to be lifted into place and attached to the hull and other sections. This is a technique widely used in commercial shipbuilding and for other Chinese warships, including the 12,000-ton Type 55 destroyers and 40,000 ton Type 075 LPH amphibious ship. The new carrier yard could be used for building smaller ships but it could also be used for turning out carriers quickly. Recently built Chinese carriers take less than two years to finish and launch. After that, it moves to the fitting out pier where another two or three years of work is needed before the carrier is ready for sea trials. The trials, including trips back to port or the shipyard for fixes and adjustments, can take a year or so. All this is more than twice as fast American yards.
中国已经扩大了造船厂的设施,为大规模生产大型船只(如运输船,驱逐舰和大型两栖船)提供设施。似乎有一个新的造船厂专门用来建造航空母舰。围绕新的干船坞和附近一公里长的装配码头修建了大量的基础设施。这是一种大规模生产作业,将航空母舰船体的部件和船体内部的预制部分存放在附近,以便将其吊入适当位置,并连接到船体和其他部件上。这是一项广泛用于商业造船和其他中国军舰的技术,包括12,000吨055型驱逐舰和40,000吨075 LPH两栖舰。新的船坞可以用于建造较小的舰船,但也可以用于快速建造航空母舰。最近建造的中国航空母舰只需不到两年的时间就可以完成并下水。之后,它将移至装配码头,在航空母舰准备进行海试之前,还需要再工作两到三年。这些试验,包括返回港口或造船厂进行修理和调整,可能需要一年左右的时间。所有这些都是美国造船厂同样速度的两倍以上。

China is not just building a lot of new ships quickly it is also sending them on unprecedented long voyages. This has been going on for a decade. For example, in late 2015 the Chinese Navy visited Finland for the first time. A Chinese destroyer, frigate and supply ship arrived as part of a six-month world cruise for these three ships and making official visits to countries along the way including seven stops in the Baltic Sea. This is all part of a new policy that has warships spending a lot more time at sea and sending some of them to a lot of places Chinese warships have never been before. As a result, since 2010 Chinese warships have been achieving a lot of firsts. For example, in 2013 Chinese warships were, for the first time, seen moving through the La Perouse Straits, which separates the Russian island of Sakhalin and the Japanese northernmost home island of Hokkaido. Chinese warships later, for the first time moved completely around the Japanese islands. In early 2014 Chinese warships were seen moving through the Sunda Strait (between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra) for the first time. Later in 2014, for the first time, a Chinese submarine passed through the Strait of Malacca and entered the Indian Ocean. That has happened several times since then, and one of the subs was nuclear powered. The Chinese subs showed up in Sri Lanka and as far west as the Persian Gulf. Apparently Chinese subs are going to visit the Indian Ocean on a regular basis from now on.
中国不仅在迅速建造许多新舰艇,而且还在派遣他们前所未有的远航。这已经持续了十年。例如,2015年底,中国海军首次访问了芬兰。一艘中国驱逐舰,一艘护卫舰和一艘补给舰作为这三艘舰艇的六个月世界巡游的一部分抵达,并对包括波罗的海的七个停靠点在内的沿途国家进行了正式访问。这一切都是新政策的一部分,新政策要求军舰在海上花费更多时间,并将其中一些派往中国军舰从未到过的许多地方。结果,自2010年以来,中国军舰取得了许多创举。例如,2013年,中国军舰首次在拉佩鲁斯海峡中穿行,该海峡将俄罗斯的萨哈林岛和日本的北海道最北端的岛屿隔开。之后,中国军舰首次完全环绕日本列岛航行。 2014年初,中国军舰首次穿越巽他海峡海峡(在印尼爪哇岛和苏门答腊岛之间)。2014年下半年,中国潜艇首次穿越马六甲海峡进入印度洋。从那以后,这种情况发生了好几次,其中一艘潜艇是核动力的。中国潜艇出现在斯里兰卡以及最西端的波斯湾。显然,从现在起,中国潜艇将定期访问印度洋。

In 2013 Chinese warships visiting Chile and Argentina passed through the Strait of Magellan for the first time in history. At the same time a Chinese amphibious ship (a 19,000-ton LPD) with marines on board visited Syria. This was the first time a Chinese amphibious ship had visited the Mediterranean. China has three of these LPDs and another was recently launched. These LPDs have also been serving as part of the international anti-piracy task force off Somalia. Chinese warships were briefly seen off the African coast centuries ago, but in the last decade they have been their regularly operating off the Somali coast with the international anti-piracy patrol. That’s the first time Chinese warships have participated in this kind of long-term international effort.
2013年,访问智利和阿根廷的中国军舰历史上首次穿越麦哲伦海峡。 同时,一艘载有海军陆战队士兵的中国两栖船(19,000吨LPD)访问了叙利亚。这是中国两栖舰首次访问地中海。中国拥有这样三艘船坞登陆舰(LPD),最近又下水了另一艘。这些船坞登陆舰(LPD)还一直是索马里海上国际反海盗任务舰队的一部分。几个世纪前曾短暂地在非洲沿岸看到过中国军舰,但在过去的十年中,它们经常与国际反海盗巡逻舰队一起在索马里沿岸航行。这是中国军舰第一次参与这种长期的国际行动。

There are so many naval firsts now because for most of China’s history there was an attitude that there was really nothing useful beyond Chinese borders. Some ships were built for trade, but not on a large scale and never with a powerful navy to protect them. Then China began liberalizing and modernizing its economy in the 1980s and that led to lots of exports and even more imports of raw materials and items that China did not make. That justified a larger, sea going, navy. China’s economic interests are now, for the first time, worldwide and so is its navy. As any naval historian can tell you, a navy becomes a serious force by keeping its ships at sea a lot. That’s how Britain won global naval dominance from the 18th through the early 20th century. That was how the United States took over that role by the mid-20th century and that is what may happen with China sometime in the 21st century.
现在有这么多海军第一,因为在中国的大多数历史上,都有一种态度,认为除了中国边界外,没有任何其他用途。 一些船只是为贸易而建造的,但规模不大,也从未有强大的海军来保护它们。 然后,中国在1980年代开始实行经济自由化和现代化,这导致大量出口,甚至增加了中国未生产的原材料和物品的进口。这证明了更大的,远洋海军是合理的。如今,中国的经济利益首次出现在全球范围内,海军也是如此。 正如任何一位海军历史学家都能告诉你的那样,一支海军由于经常在海上航行而成为一支重要的力量。从18世纪到20世纪初,英国就是这种方式赢得了全球海军主导地位的原因。这就是美国在20世纪中叶之前接管这一角色的方式,而在21世纪的某个时候,中国可能会发生这种情况。
 

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