DongFeng 31A (CSS-9 Mod-2) Intercontinental Ballistic Missil

中国DF-31A(CSS-9 Mod-2)洲际弹道导弹

Date:2016-01-04 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:

The DongFeng 31A (NATO reporting name: CSS-9 Mod-2) is a road-mobile, three-stage, solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), designed to carry a single 1,000kT thermal nuclear warhead. The missile was developed from the DongFeng 31 (CSS-9), with extended range and improved performance. About 10 DongFeng 31A missiles have been deployed by the PLA Second Artillery Corps since 2006~07 to supplement its silo-based DongFeng 5 (CSS-4) ICBM. A submarine-launched ballistic missile JuLang 2 is also being developed based on the DongFeng 31 technology.

东风-31A(北约:CSS-9 Mod-2)是一种公路机动、三级、固体推进剂洲际弹道导弹(ICBM),设计携带单一1,000 kT热核弹头。导弹基于东风-31(CSS-9)发展,具有增加射程和改进性能。大约10枚东风-31A导弹从2006~07年以后被PLA第二炮兵部署去补充它的发射井-基东风-5(CSS-4) ICBM。潜射弹道导弹巨浪-2也正在基于东风-31技术发展。

The DongFeng 31A offers a number of technological and operational advantages over older Chinese missiles such as DF-4 (CSS-3). Instead of being launched from a fixed location, the DongFeng 31A can be transported on its transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) vehicle to one of many predetermined launch sites, giving greater survivability in the event of a first strike. The use of solid propellant gives the missile a longer service lifespan and shorter launch preparation time compared to the liquid fuel ICBMs.


The DongFeng 31A is said to be armed with a lightweight warhead allegedly copied from the U.S. W-88 or W-70 warhead designs, though so far no sound evidence has been found to support this claim. Furthermore, the DongFeng 31A is believed to have incorporated many advanced technologies similar to current generation Russian ICBMs, including the use of penetration aids such as decoys or chaffs to complicate enemy’s missile warning and defence system.


DongFeng 31A launch test (Chinese Internet).东风-31A发射测试(中国英特网)


The DongFeng 31 programme began in 1986, originally intended as a successor to the DF-4 (CSS-3) intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) to cover targets in the European theatre of the Soviet Union. The design task was assigned to the 4th Department (Solid-Propellant Missile Design Department, now part of the CASIC 4th Academy). The solid-propellant rocket motors used on the first- and second-stage of the DongFeng 31 were successfully tested in late 1983. The third-stage rocket motor was tested in mid-1984. The programme entered the engineering development phase in 1987.



The first test launch of the missile using a dummy warhead was conducted on 2 August 1999, from Taiyuan missile test facility (known as Wuzhai Missile Test Centre) in Shanxi Province to the impact zone in Lop Nor in Xinjiang. The test was only partially successful. The DongFeng 31 missile system was briefly displayed during the 1999 National Day military parade, though the missile itself could not be seen as it was concealed in the large canister carrier on a truck-trailer transport-erection-launch (TEL) vehicle. Two further tests were carried out in late 2000, but they were said to be also unsuccessful.


The DongFeng 31 was originally developed in parallel with the 12,000km-range DF-41 (CSS-X-10) ICBM. However, the end of the Cold War and a review of China’s nuclear strategy resulted in the DF-41 being cancelled in the late 1990s, leaving DongFeng 31 China’s only active ICBM programme. However, with its maximum range of 8,000km, the DongFeng 31 was regarded inadequate to provide an effective nuclear deterrent. For example, when launched from central China, the missile could only reach a smaller corner of the west coast of the United States. This limitation, coupled with various design flaws and technical issues, led to the decision to develop an improved variant DongFeng 31A, which caused further delay in the operational deployment of the missile. A flight test of the DongFeng 31A was carried out on 4 September 2006, and the test was said to be fully successful.

东风-31最初和12,000公里-射程的DF-41(CSS-X-10) ICBM平行发展。然而,冷战结束和中国核战略调整造成DF-41在1990年后期被取消,留下中国唯一进行的东风-31 ICBM计划。尽管,它最大射程8,000公里,东风-31被视为提供一种不充分的核扼制能力。举例来说,当从中国中部发射,导弹只能到达美国西海岸的一个小范围区域。这个限制,加上各种不同的设计缺陷和技术问题,导致决定发展一种改进的东风-31A,引发导弹操作部署进一步的延迟。在2006年9月4日东风-31A进行一次飞行测试,而且测试据说完全成功。

The 2007 U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) report to congress on the PRC military power suggested that the DongFeng 31 had reached “initial threat availability (ITA)” in 2006 and possible “operational status by May 2007”. The 2008 version of the report confirmed that less than 10 DongFeng 31A missiles/launchers were being deployed by units within the PLA Second Artillery Corps.


DongFeng 31A third-stage (PLA Pictorial).东风-31A 第三级(解放军画报)


It was estimated that the DongFeng 31A had a payload of about 700kg (other source suggested between 1,050 and 1,750kg), which can be equipped with a single 1,000kT yield nuclear warhead. The maximum range of the missile is 10,700~11,200km. The missile uses an inertial guidance system that is equipped with a stellar update system, and is expected to have an accuracy of at least 300m CEP. Some resource suggested that the silo and TEL-based versions of the DongFeng 31A have 100m and 150m CEP respectively.

一般估计东风-31A负载大约700公斤(其它消息来源称在1,050公斤和1,750公斤之间),能装备一枚单一1,000 kT当量核弹头。导弹最大射程是10,700~11,200公里。导弹采用一套装备星形修正的惯性导航系统,而且预料CEP精度不超过300米。一些消息来源认为发射井和TEL-基东风-31A分别具有100米和150米CEP。

DongFeng 31A TEL vehicle (Chinese Internet).东风-31A TEL车辆(中国英特网)

The road-mobile DongFeng 31A is carried inside a large canister launcher mounted on a 16-wheeled HY473 or HY4301 TEL consisting of a tractor and a semi-trailer. The TEL vehicle appeared to be only suitable for road travelling, with little, if any, off-road travelling capability. A new single 12- or 16-wheeled TEL similar to those used by the Russian ICBM systems is reportedly in development. There has been speculation that China was also developing a railway-based TEL for the DongFeng 31 but this cannot be confirmed.

公路-机动东风-31A储藏在一个大型发射筒内装载在一辆16-轮 HY473型或HY4301型由一辆牵引卡车和一辆半-拖车组成的TEL平台上。TEL车辆似乎仅仅适合用于公路行进,如果真具有的话,可能具有少许越野行进能力。新的单辆12-或16-轮TEL与俄国ICBM采用的系统类似据传闻正在发展中。已经推测中国也发展铁路-基TEL用于东风-31但不能够被确认。


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Official name: DongFeng 31A (DF-31A)
NATO reporting name: CSS-9 Mod-2
Contractor: CASIC 4th Academy
Service status: In service
Configuration: Three-stage, solid propellant
Deployment: Road mobile, 8X8 tractor truck + 8-wheel trailer; or silo
Length: 13m
Body diameter: 2.25m
Launch weight: 42,000kg
Range: 10,700~11,200km
Re-entry vehicle mass: 700kg (or 1,050~1,750kg)
Warhead: One single 1,000kT yield
Guidance: Inertial + stellar update
Accuracy: 100~300m CEP
Launch preparation time: 15~30 min


正式命名: 东风-31A(DF-31A)
北约组织代号: CSS-9 Mod-2
承包商: 中国航天科技集团公司第四研究院(航天动力技术研究院)
服役状态: 服役中
结构: 三-级,固体推进剂
配置: 公路机动,8X8 牵引卡车 + 8轮拖车;或发射井
长度: 13 米
弹体直径: 2.25 米
发射重量: 42,000 公斤
射程: 10,700~11,200 公里
再入运载器质量: 700 公斤(或 1,050~1,750 公斤)
弹头: 一枚单一 1,000 kT 当量
制导: 惯性 + 星形修正
精度: 100~300 米 CEP
发射准备时间: 15~30 分钟

Last update: 15 February 2009

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