DongFeng 31 (CSS-9) Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

中国DF-31(CSS-9)洲际弹道导弹

Date:2013-10-26 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:


The most advanced Chinese ballistic missile currently in service, the DF-31 replaced the DF-4 originally introduced in the 1970s. The missile first debut in the 1999 National day military parade.中国现役中最先进的弹道导弹,DF-31代替在1970年发展的DF-4。导弹在1999年国庆节阅兵式第一次亮相。

The DongFeng-31 (DF-31, NATO codename: CSS-9) is an intercontinental-range, road-mobile, solid-propellant ballistic missile developed by Academy of Rocket Motor Technology (ARMT, also known as 4th Aerospace Academy). The missile was developed as a land-based version of the JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). The most advanced ballistic missile currently in service, the DF-31 features higher mobility and therefore better survivability compared to the last generation Chinese ICBM.

东风-31(DF-31,北约代号:CSS-9)是一种洲际、公路机动、固体推进剂弹道导弹,由中国航天动力技术研究院(ARMT,第4空间研究院)发展。导弹的发展如同JL-2潜射弹道导弹(SLBM)的一种陆基型。DF-31是目前服役中最先进的弹道导弹,与中国上一代洲际弹道导弹(ICBM)相比较特点是高机动性和由此更好的生存能力。

PROGRAMME

China began to develop the second generation ICBM as a successor to the obsolete DF-4 (CSS-3) in the mid-1980s. 4th Aerospace Academy (now ARMT) in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia was appointed as the main contractor, with the Research Institute of the PLA Second Artillery Corps and other scientific research organisations also involved. The DF-31 design was based on the JL-2 (CSS-NX-10) SLBM. The sea-launched origin of the missile made it easily adapted for land mobile launch systems.

计划

中国开始在1980年中期发展第二代ICBM,用于替代陈旧的DF-4(CSS-3)。位于中国内蒙古呼和浩特的第4空间研究院(现在的ARMT),被任命为主承包商,PLA 第二炮兵研究院和其他科研机构也积极参与。DF-31设计以JL-2(CSS-NX-10)SLBM为基础。由原来的潜射导弹可以容易地修改成陆基机动发射系统。

The development of the DF-31 has reportedly experienced a number of technical difficulties, including the large solid-fuel motors for the 8,000km-range DF-31. As a result the first test launch scheduled in the early 1990s was repeatedly postponed. Preparation for the first DF-31 test began in the second half of 1998. On 2 August 1999, Chinese state news media reported that China has successfully launched a new ICBM from the PLA Second Artillery Corps’ missile test centre in Wuzhai, Shanxi, with impact point somewhere in Lop Nor (Xinjiang).

DF-31的发展据传闻经历许多技术上的困难,包括用于8,000公里射程DF-31的大型固体燃料发动机。结果预定在1990年早期的第一次试射被多次延期。在1998 年第二季度为进行DF-31第一次射试做准备。在1999年8月2日,中国的国家新闻媒体报道中国已经成功地发射一枚新型ICBM,从位于陕西五寨(Wuzhai)的PLA第二炮兵导弹测试中心发射,弹着点在新疆罗布泊(Lop Nor)某处地点。

During the military parade held in Beijing to celebrate the People’s Republic of China (PRC)’s 50th anniversary on 1 October 1999, China revealed the DF-31 ICBM to the public for the first time. However, the missile itself could not be seen as it was concealed in the large canister carried on a transport-erection-launch (TEL) vehicle. The operational deployment of the DF-31 reportedly began in 2002/03, with 12 missiles in service so far. China also developed an improved model DF-31A with extended range of 10,000km, improved accuracy and multiple independently-targeted re-entry vehicle (MIRV) capability.

在1999年10月1日,北京举行庆祝中华人民共和国国庆第50周年阅兵式上,中国第一次对公众展示了DF-31 ICBM。然而,导弹隐藏在发射箱内装载在一辆竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车上,导弹它本身是看不到的。DF-31的操作部署根据传闻从2002/03年开始,到现在为止12枚导弹在服役中。中国也发展一种改进型DF-31A,增程到10,000公里,改良精度和多弹头分导再入载体(MIRV)能力。

The DF-31 and its derivations represent significant improvement on the survivability and performance of the Chinese ballistic missile. The missile has the capability against both hardened missile silos and civilian population centres. The silo-based DF-31 has a reported accuracy of 100m CEP, which is sufficient to destroy hardened missile silos if equipped with one of the higher yield MIRV warheads. The road-mobile variant might have a lower accuracy but this can be improved by adding satellite navigation and positioning capability such as GPS or GLONASS to the launch platform.

DF-31和它衍生型表现了中国弹道导弹在生存性和性能方面的重要进步。导弹具有对抗导弹发射井等硬目标和城市中心等软目标两者能力。据称发射井式DF-31精度达到100米圆概率误差(CEP),如果装备使用一枚高当量MIRV弹头,足够摧毁硬化的导弹发射井。公路-机动型可能精度较低,但是能通过增加卫星导航和部署能力来改进,像通过美国的全球定位系统(GPS)或俄罗斯的全球轨道导航卫星系统(GLONASS)部署到发射平台。


The DF-31 poses a serious challenge to its rival. The missile has the capability against both hardened missile silos and civilian population centres. The use of the solid propellant has significantly reduced the launch preparation time. The road mobile launcher increases the missile’s survivability to the enemy’s first strike.DF-31对它的对手造成严重的挑战。导弹具有对抗硬目标如导弹发射井和软目标如城市中心两者的能力。固体推进剂的使用已经重要地减少发射准备时间。公路机动发射装置把导弹的生存性提高到有能力应对敌人第一波打击。

MISSILE

The DF-31 is a three-stage, solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile. The basic variant DF-31 has a range of 8,000km and delivers a payload of between 1,050 and 1,750kg. This payload can be equipped with a single 1,000kT yield nuclear warhead.

导弹

DF-31是一种三级、固体推进剂洲际弹道导弹。基本型DF-31射程8,000公里并且递送在1,050公斤和1,750公斤之间的一个负载。这一个负载能被装备一枚单一的1,000kT当量核弹头。

The upgraded DF-31A has a range of at least 10,000km. The missile is said to be capable of deliver 3~5 MTRVs each with 20, 90 or 150kT yield as well as a single 1,000kT yield warhead. It is also possibly equipped with penetration aids and decoys to complicate enemy missile warning and defence.

升级的DF-31A射程至少10,000公里。导弹据说能够递送3~5个多弹头分导再入载体(MIRV),每个具有20、90或150kT当量或一枚单一的1,000kT当量弹头。它也可能采用突防手段和假目标去打乱敌人的导弹预警和防卫系统。

The missile has a launch weight of 42,000kg with a length of 13.0m and a body diameter of 2.25m. it uses an inertial guidance system that is equipped with a stellar update system. The missile is expected to have an accuracy of at least 300m CEP, though it is reported that the silo and TEL-based version have 100 and 150m CEP respectively. The use of solid propellant gives the missile a longer service-life and shorter launch time compared to the liquid fuel ICBMs.

导弹长度13.0米和直径2.25米,发射重量42,000公斤。它采用一套装备星形修正系统的惯性制导系统。导弹精度期望具有至少300米圆概率误差(CEP),虽然一些报道称发射井和竖立式运输发射架(TEL)-基分别具有100米和150米的圆概率误差(CEP)。与液体燃料ICBM相比固体推进剂的使用提供给导弹一个较长的服役寿命和较短的发射时间。

LAUNCH PLATFORM

The DF-31 can be launched from missile silos or transport-erection-launch (TEL) vehicles. Early variant of the DF-31 was carried on a 16-wheel Hanyang HY473 TEL consisting of a tractor and a semi-trailer. The DF-31 displayed in the 1999 National Day military parade was carried on an improved Hanyang HY4301 TEL. These TEL vehicles provide the missile with limited road mobile capability, but no off-road travelling capability.

发射平台

DF-31能够从导弹发射井或竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆发射。早期型号DF-31装载在一辆由汉阳特种汽车制造厂生产的16轮汉阳(Hanyang)HY473型竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆上,由一辆牵引车和一辆半拖车组成。DF-31在1999年国庆节阅兵式中展示,装载在一辆改进的汉阳 HY4301型竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆上。这些竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆提供有限的公路机动能力,但是没有越野行进能力。


Early variant of the DF-31 was carried on a 16-wheel Hanyang HY473 TEL consisting of a tractor and a semi-trailer. DF-31的早期型装载在一辆16轮的Hanyang HY473竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆,由一辆牵引车和一辆半拖车所组成。

Foreign intelligence has noted a Belarus MAZ7916 12-wheel mobile missile TEL at the DF-31 production facility in Nanyuan, Beijing. Used for former Soviet SS-20 IRBM, the MAZ7916 TEL has a significantly better cross-country travelling capability than the existing Hanyang TEL for DF-31. China may have incorporated some MAZ technologies including all-wheel independent suspension, higher ground clearance, driver-controlled central tire-inflation systems, and large tires on its own indigenous heavy-duty cross-country vehicles to develop a fully off-road mobile TEL for the DF-31.

国外情报部门已经提到一种白俄罗斯MAZ7916型12-轮机动导弹竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆出现在位于北京南苑(Nanyuan)的DF-31制造厂。用于前苏联SS-20 IRBM,MAZ7916型竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆为DF-31提供重要更好的越野行进能力,胜于汉阳已有的竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆。中国可能已经吸收MAZ技术用于国产的重型越野车辆上,包括全-轮独立悬挂,比较高的离地间隙,驾驶员控制的中央轮胎-充气系统和大轮胎,为DF-31发展一种全越野机动竖立式运输发射架(TEL)车辆。

There has been speculation that China was developing a railway-based launch platform for the DF-31 but this cannot be confirmed.

已经有推测中国为DF-31正在发展一种铁路-基发射平台,但是这不能够确认。


No photo of the DF-31 missile has been released so far due to its high sensitivity. China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) revealed the KT-1 solid-fuel space launch vehicle in 2001. The vehicle, which is based on the DF-31 design, provides some clue about the appearance of the DF-31 missile.到现在为止由于它的高敏感度没有关于DF-31导弹的相片。中国航天科工集团公司(CASIC)在2001年显示KT-1固体燃料运载火箭。以DF-31设计为基础的运载火箭提供有关DF-31导弹外表的一些线索。

SPECIFICATIONS

Configuration: Three stage
Length: 13m
Diameter: 2.25m
Launch Weight: 42,000kg
Propellant: Solid fuel
Guidance: Inertial + stellar update
Range: 8,000km (DF-31); 10,000km (DF-31A)
Deployment: Silo or road mobile
Re-entry Vehicle Mass: 1,050~1,750kg
Warhead: One single 1,000kT, or up to three 20~150kT multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicle (MIRV)
CEP: 100~300m
Launch Preparation Time: ~15 min

规格

配置: 三级
长度: 13 米
直径: 2.25 米
发射重量: 42,000 公斤
推进剂: 固体燃料
制导: 惯性+星形修正
射程: 8,000 公里(DF-31);10,000 公里(DF-31A)
部署: 发射井或公路机动装置
再入飞行器质量: 1,050~1,750 公斤
弹头: 单一的1,000 kT,或达到三个20~150 kT多弹头分导再入载体(MIRV)
圆概率误差(CEP): 100~300 米
发射准备时间: ~15 分钟

Last update: 15 February 2009
最后更新:2009年2月15日

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