DF-1 ballistic missile system


Date:2020-04-05 Source:Globalsecurity By:Globalmil Viewed:

Under the Sino-Soviet agreement on cooperation in the period of 1957-1962, the Soviet Union transferred training and combat models, licenses and technical documentation for the production of R-1 (SS-1) and R-2 (SS-2) ground-based operational-tactical ballistic missiles and R-11F sea-launched ballistic missiles. Which rockets the USSR shipped to China prior to thebreak in 1960 is unclear, but they probably included the SS-2 Siblings. The SS-2 was essentially a modified version of the German V-2 rocket, using a single RD-101 engine that burned liquid oxygen and alcohol. The first DF-1 launch took place on 5 November 1960 from the Jiuquan base. Deployment of the conventionally armed DF-1 ballistic missile, the domestically produced Chinese version of the SS-2, occurred in the 1960s.
根据1957-1962年间的中苏合作协定,苏联转让了训练和战斗模型,许可证和技术文件用于生产R-1(SS-1)、R-2(SS-2) 陆基作战战术弹道导弹和R-11F海射弹道导弹。苏联在1960年和中国关系破裂前向中国运送的火箭还不清楚,但其中可能包括SS-2衍生型。SS-2本质上是德国V-2火箭的改良型号,使用的是一台可燃烧液氧和酒精RD-101发动机。DF-1于1960年11月5日从酒泉基地发射升空。SS-2的中国国产型号常规武装DF-1弹道导弹的部署于1960年进行。
The missile was 17.7m in length, 1.65m in diameter, had a takeoff weight of 20.5 tons,a range of 590km, and had a thrust of 37 tons. The control system was a mixed guidance type using inertial guidance and radio transverse deviation correction.
In 1958, the Fifth Research Academy began to duplicate the Soviet R-2(SS-2) with the assistance of Soviet advisors. However, duplicate production of the SS-2 missile was adversely affected by the politics of the Great Leap Forward. The development program was hampered by problems regarding the technology, personnel, and material associated with the duplicate production of the SS-2. As a solution, many aspects of the missile were imported, substituted, and domestically developed.
1958年,第五研究院在苏联顾问的协助下开始仿制苏联R-2(SS-2)。 但是,SS-2导弹的复制生产受到大跃进政治的不利影响。同时,SS-2的仿制生产相关的技术,人员和材料方面的问题阻碍了该开发计划。作为解决方案,导弹的许多方面都是进口,替代和国内开发。
Successful test launching of three duplicate SS-2s was carried out in November and December of 1960.
Contractor[制造商] Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology - CALT
Operator[操作] Second Artillery Corps[中国人民解放军第二炮兵器部队]
Configuration[配置] Single Stage[单级]
Length [长度](meters) 17.7m
Diameter[直径](meters) 1.65m
Mass[重量]([kilograms] 20.5 tons
Propellant[推进] Storable[可储存]
Guidance[制导] Inertial[惯性]
First Flight[首次飞行] 5 November 1960[1960年11月5日]
IOC[初始作战能力] 19
Deployment[部署] Soft[软目标]
Range[射程] (km) 590km
Re-entry Vehicle Mass [再入弹头质量](kg)  
Warhead[战斗部] Conventional[常规]
CEP[圆概率误差] (meters)  


China’s first ballistic missile system, a licensed copy of the Soviet R-2 (SS-2 ‘Sibling’) short-range ballistic missile.
Design Features
The DF-1 was a single-stage rocket powered by a 5D62 liquid rocket engine burning alcohol as fuel and liquid oxygen (LOX) as oxidiser. The engine had a sea-level thrust of 38 t, an Isp of 214s, with a burn time of 90s. The engine was developed by the Institute of Liquid Rocket Engine of the Fifth Academy, the Missile Assembly Plant (Factory 211), and the Fifth Sub-Factory of the Shenyang Liming Aero-Engine Plant. The development of the engine was completed in September 1960.
The DF-1 was a copy of the R-2 rocket, which itself was derived from the German V-2 but with doubled range. The missile was 17.7 m in length and 1.65 m in diameter, with four trapezoidal-shape stabilising fins attached to the bottom. The missile had a launch weight of 20.5 t, and a take-off thrust of 37 t. The maximum flight range was 590 km. The missile was transported on a truck-towed trailer, which also served as the launcher platform.
DF-1是R-2火箭的仿制型,它本身是从德国V-2衍生而来,但射程增加了一倍。导弹的长度为17.7米,直径为1.65米,底部装有四个梯形稳定鳍。该导弹的发射重量为20.5吨,起飞推力为37吨。最大飞行距离为590公里。 导弹是用卡车拖曳的拖车运输的,拖车也用作发射平台。
The missile was designed to carry a single high-explosive (HE) warhead, though no combat warhead had ever been developed. The DF-1 used an inertial guidance coupled with remote radio mid-course lateral correction. The later required a large antenna array to be deployed on either side of the launcher, making the launch unit easily detectable in the battlefield.
该导弹的设计目的是携带一颗高爆弹头,尽管从未研制出作战弹头。 DF-1使用了惯性制导,加上远程无线电中段横向校正。后者需要在发射架的两侧部署大型天线阵列,从而使发射装置在战场上易于探测到。

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