Type 95 Assault Rifle

中国95式突击步枪

Date:2010-06-09 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:


The Type 95 (QBZ95) 5.8mm assault rifle is the PLA’s second-generation infantry assault weapon to replace the older 7.62mm Type 81 and Type 56 (AK-47). The bullpup rifle was first introduced in 1997 and is now in service with most of the PLA’s elite ground units.95式(QBZ95)5.8毫米突击步枪是PLA第二代步兵攻击武器去代替陈旧的7.62毫米81式和56式(AK-47)。无托步枪在1997年被首次引进和在大多数的PLA精锐单位服役中。

The Type 95 (also known as QBZ95) family of 5.8mm assault rifle is the standard automatic weapon developed by NORINCO for the PLA. The weapon entered PLA service in 1997 to replace the older 7.62mm Type 56 and Type 81 rifles. The Type 95 adopts a bullpup layout similar to the French Giat FAMAS. The weapon is offered in three variants: the basic variant assault rifle QBZ95, the squad machine gun QBB95, and the shortened compact rifle CAR95. Most of the PLA’s elite ground units are now equipped with the Type 95.

中国95式(也即是QBZ95)5.8毫米突击步枪系列产品由中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)为PLA发展的标准自动武器。武器在1997年进入了PLA服役代替陈旧的7.62毫米56式和81式步枪。95式采用与法国法国地面武器工业集团公司(Giat)FAMAS类似的一种无托(bullpup)设计。武器提供三种改型:基本型突击步枪QBZ95,班机枪QBB95和缩短的紧凑型步枪CAR95。大多数PLA的精锐单位目前装备95式。


Early variant Type 95 rifle in service with the PLA’s Hong Kong garrison troops can be fitted with an under-barrel Type 91B (QLJ91B) 35mm grenade launcher. The rear-fed launcher is used to launch non-lethal anti-riot grenades.早期95式步枪在PLA的香港守备部队服役能配备一种枪管下91B型(QLJ91B)35毫米榴弹发射器。后进弹的发射装置用来发射无致命的防暴榴弹。

PROGRAMME

The PLA began to develop its next-generation assault rifle in the late 1970s. The early stage of the programme focused on the development of a small-calibre, high-velocity cartridge comparable to the NATO standard 5.56 X 45mm SS109 and Soviet 5.54 X 39mm M74 cartridges in performance. Following several rounds of tests and evaluations, the 5.8 X 42mm DBP87 cartridge was finally chosen five candidates (5.6mm, 5.8mm, 5.81mm, 5.98mm and 6.00mm) as the winner. The cartridge develops a muzzle velocity of 930m/s from a standard barrel, and an effective range of 400m. The cartridge was said to have a better penetration capability than the NATO standard 5.56mm cartridge.

计划

PLA在1970年后期开始发展它的下一代突击步枪。计划的早期阶段重心集中在小-口径,高射速弹药可比得上北约标准5.56X45毫米SS109和苏联5.54X39毫米M74弹药的性能。在一些弹药测试和评估之后,5.8X42毫米DBP87弹药是被最后选择五种候选类型(5.6毫米,5.8毫米,5.81毫米,5.98毫米和6.00毫米)中的获胜者。弹药从一个标准枪管达到930米/秒的出膛速度和有效射程400米。弹药据说有一个较好的穿透能力优于北约组织标准5.56毫米弹药。

As soon as the ammunition was ready, the PLA began to develop a new rifle based on the 5.8mm cartridge. NORINCO introduced a completely new bullpup rifle design known as QBZ95 in the mid-1990s, and the weapon was adopted by the PLA as the Type 95 to replace the older Type 56 and Type 81 7.62mm rifles. The Type 95 was first seen in service with the PLA’s Hong Kong Garrison Troops in 1997, and was also featured in the 1999 military parade in Beijing to celebrate the country’s 50th anniversary. By 2005 most of the PLA’s elite ground units are equipped with the Type 95 as the standard rifle.

一旦弹药准备好,PLA开始发展基于5.8毫米弹药的一种新步枪。在1990年中期中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)推出了全新的无托步枪设计即是QBZ95,并且武器被PLA采用被称为95式代替较旧的56式和81式7.62毫米步枪。95式被首先看到在1997年和PLA的香港守备军队服役中,并且在北京1999年庆祝国庆50周年阅兵式也扮演重要角色。2005年PLA的大部分精锐单位装备95式被当做标准步枪。

The user experience of the Type 95 has been highly controversial. The bullpup design allows a shorter weapon overall length without sacrificing hitting power and wounding effects. This is advantageous for the use in a compact space such as armoured vehicle or helicopter. However, compared to the conventional layout rifle, the bullpup rifle is unable to shoot as accurately as the former due to the way the weapon is held by its user. Additionally, because the ejection port on the bullpup rifle is very close to the user’s face, the user would feel greater sound, blast and smoke effects when spent casings eject.

95式的使用经验已经有极大争议。无托设计不牺牲打击力和杀伤效果而允许一个较短的武器全长。这有利于在狭窄空间像是装甲车辆或直升飞机内使用。然而,相比较传统设计的步枪,无托步枪不能够被使用者按照以前的拿着方式正确射击。另外,因为无托步枪退壳口非常接近使用者的面部,当废弹壳跳出时使用者感到非常大的声音、气浪和烟尘。

VARIANTS

Like many assault rifle designs, the Type 95 comes in a variety of configurations, including the basic assault rifle QBZ95, the squad machine gun QBB95 that produces higher volumes of fire and is effective at longer ranges, and the shortened compact rifle CAR95. NORINCO has also developed an export version of the weapon known as QBZ97 (Type 97), which fires the NATO standard 5.56 X 45mm rounds. Another weapon in the 5.8mm rifle family is the Type 88 semi-automatic sniper rifle, which share the similar design and many components to the Type 95, but is generally regarded as a distinct weapon.

改型

像许多突击步枪设计,95式出现多种配置,包括基本型突击步枪QBZ95,班机枪QBB95提供更高强度的火力和更远的有效射程,还有被缩短的紧凑型步枪CAR95。中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)也已经发展武器的一个外销型即是QBZ97(97式),射击北约组织标准5.56X45毫米弹药。5.8毫米步枪系列产品的另外一种武器是88型半自动狙击步枪但是通常被视为一个分离的武器,共享95型的同样设计和许多部件。


The Type 95 in service with the regular PLA troops can be fitted with an under-barrel LC1-I 35mm grenade launcher. The launcher is front-fed and can fire 35mm high-explosive (HE) and high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) rounds with a maximum range of 400m.95式在一般的PLA军队服役能配备一种枪管下LC1-I 35毫米榴弹发射器。发射装置是前面进弹而且能发射35毫米高爆(HE)和高爆反坦克弹药(HEAT)具有最大400毫米射程。


The QBB95 squad machine gun fitted with an image-intensified night vision. The weapon features a slightly longer barrel than that of the standard assault rifle and a 75-round cartridge drum. The weapon fires the 5.8mm “heavy round” cartridge that produces higher volumes of fire and is effective at longer ranges.QBB95班机枪安装一套图像增强夜视装置。武器以一个稍微地较长超过标准的突击步枪的枪管和一个75发弹鼓为特点。武器射击5.8毫米“重弹药”子弹提供较高强度火力和较远射程的效果。


The ARC95 compact rifle is specially designed for the use of special operations forces and airborne troops. The weapon features a shortened barrel and reduced weight. Unlike the standard QBZ95 assault rifle, the ARC95 cannot be attached with a grenade launcher.ARC95轻巧步枪被特别地设计用于特种部队和空降兵使用。武器以一个被短缩的枪管为特点而且减少了重量。不像标准的QBZ95突击步枪,ARC95不能够增加使用一具榴弹发射器。

DESIGN

The Type 95 is a gas operated, magazine fed, automatic weapon with a bullpup layout. It has a short stroke gas piston and a rotating bolt. The charging handle is located at the top of the receiver, under the carrying handle. The housing is made from polymer, with an integral carrying handle, which holds the rear sight base, and has mounting points for optical or night vision scopes. The ejection port is made only at the right side of the weapon, so it cannot be fired from the left shoulder.

设计

95式是一种气体操作、弹匣供弹、自动和一种无托设计的武器。它有一个短冲程气体活塞和一个旋转枪机。枪机拉柄位于枪身的顶端,在携带手柄之下。外壳是利用聚合物做成,连同手提把手,具有后瞄准器座,而且有架设点用于光学或夜视瞄准具。退壳口仅仅安排在武器的右侧,因此,它不能从左肩射击。

Standard sights are of the open type, graduated from 100~500m. The front part of the barrel in the standard version assault rifle is left unobstructed so that it can launch rifle grenades. It also can be fitted with an under-barrel grenade launcher or with a knife bayonet. Fire controls of the Type 95 rifle consist of a trigger and a safety/selector switch, located at the rear left of the receiver, behind the magazine housing. The rifle is fitted with a 30-round magazine and can fire single shots or bursts.

标准瞄准具是开口式,刻度从100~500米。标准型突击步枪前部的枪管部分左侧无阻以便它能发射枪榴弹。它也可能配备有一个在枪管下榴弹发射器或使用一个小刺刀。95式步枪的射击控制由一个板机和一个安全/选择开关,位于后部枪身左侧,在弹匣后面。步枪配备有一个30发弹匣和能点射或连射。

The CAR95 compact rifle has a shortened barrel and therefore cannot fire rifle grenade or be fitted with a grenade launcher. The QBB95 squad machine gun has a longer barrel, and is fitted with a 75-round cartridge drum and a foldable bipod for better shooting accuracy.

CAR95紧凑型步枪有一个被短缩的枪管并且因此不能发射枪榴弹或配备榴弹发射器。QBB95班机枪有一个较长的枪管,而且为较好的射击精度配备有一个75发弹药的弹鼓和一个可折叠的双脚架。

CARTRIDGES

The Type 95 family of assault weapon fires the 5.58 X 42mm DBP87 cartridge developed by NORINCO. The cartridge is available in two configurations: the standard cartridge and the “heavy round”.

子弹

95式突击武器系列产品发射由中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)发展的5.58X42 mm DBP87子弹。子弹可得二个配置:标准弹药和“重弹药”。

The standard 5.58mm cartridge is 57~58mm in length and weights 12~13g. The bullet (projectile) is 25mm in length and weights 4.5g. This cartridge is used by the QBZ95 assault rifle and CAR95 compact rifle.

标准5.58 mm子弹长度57~58mm和重量12~13g。弹头(射体)长度25mm和重量4.5g。这一种子弹被QBZ95突击步枪和CAR95轻步枪使用。

The “heavy round” cartridge was developed in 1986. It features a heavier bullet which is 28mm in length. The cartridge also differs to the standard 5.58mm cartridge in its design. This cartridge is used by the QBB95 squad machine gun, QBU88 sniper rifle, and QJY88 utility machine gun.

“重弹药”子弹在1986年被发展。它以一种长度28 mm的较沉重的子弹为特点。子弹也不同于标准5.58 mm子弹设计。这一种子弹被QBB95班机枪,QBU88狙击步枪和QJY88通用机枪使用。

Other rounds include blank firing (for rifle grenade) and tracer.

其它的弹药包括空包弹(用于枪榴弹)和示踪弹。

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES

Optical sight (X3 magnification)
Image intensified night vision (X3 magnification, 200m range)
knife bayonet
QLJ91B 35mm anti-riot grenade launcher
LC1-I 35mm combat grenade launcher
Hand grenade ejector
Blank firing attachment
Carrying sling
Cleaning kit
Laser illuminator
Tactical tortch
SPECIFICATIONS

可选择的附件

光学瞄准具(X3 倍率)
图像增强夜视(X3 倍率,200 米距离)
短刺刀
QLJ91B 35 毫米防暴榴弹发射器
LC1-I 35 毫米战斗榴弹发射器
手持式榴弹发射器
空包弹附件
携带吊带
清洁零配件
激光照明
战术照明

SPECIFICATIONS

规格

 
QBZ95
QBB95
ARC95
全长(Overall length) 746mm 800mm 609mm
枪管长度(Barrel length) 463mm 557mm 326mm
重量(Weight) 3.25kg 3.95kg 2.90kg
内径(Bore diametre)
5.8mm
有效射程(Effective range) 400m 600m 300m
出膛速度(Muzzle velocity) 930m/s 970m/s 790m/s
射速(Rate of fire)(理论,theory) 650r/min 650r/m 650r/m
射速(Rate of fire)(单发,single) 40r/min 40r/min 40r/min
射速(Rate of fire)(连发,burst) 100r/min 100r/min 100r/min
子弹(Cartridge) 5.8 X 42mm 5.8 X 42mm heavy round 5.8 X 42mm
弹匣容量(Cartridge capacity) 30 rounds 75 rounds 30 rounds

 

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