Type 69, 40mm Rocket Propelled Grenade

中国69式40毫米火箭推进榴弹

Date:2017-02-19 Source:Internet By:Globalmil Viewed:


The Type 69 RPG is a Chinese copy of the Soviet RPG-7, and provides a low-cost yet effective means of fire support to the infantry troops
69式RPG是苏联RPG-7的一种中国仿造型,而且提供低成本然而有效的火力支援手段给步兵军队。

The Type 69 40mm rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a Chinese copy of the famous RPG-7 developed by the Soviet Union. First introduced in the early 1970s, the Type 69 RPG is still the most common individual anti-tank weapon in service with the PLA. New types of grenade rounds have been developed in the 1980s/90s to meet the requirements of modern battlefield. 
中国69式40毫米火箭推进榴弹(RPG)是被苏联发展闻名的RPG-7的一种中国仿造型。在1970年早期中首次引进,69式RPG仍然是在PLA服役中最常用的单兵反坦克武器。新类型榴弹药已经在1980年/90年内被发展去符合现代化战场需求。 
   
PROGRAMME
计划
 
The Type 69, as well as its prototype RPG-7, is one of the most popular infantry anti-tank and general support weapon in the world. It is robust, cheap, easy to operate, and carries a lethal punch. From Afghanistan to Somalia, from Chechnya to Angola, the weapon is well liked by many infantrymen and guerrillas around the world.
69式和它的原型RPG-7,是世界上最流行的步兵反坦克和一般支援武器之一。它坚固、便宜、容易操作和递送一个致命的打击。从阿富汗到索马里,从车臣到安哥拉,武器在世界上被许多步兵和游击队喜爱。
 
The origin of the RPG can be traced back to the WWII German Panzerfaust, based on which the Soviets have developed a range of grenade launchers. Among these the most successful design is the RPG-7, which was first fielded by the Soviet Red Army in 1961. Since then, the weapon has entered service with over 40 countries’ armies, and is copied in many countries including Bulgaria, China, Iran, Iraq, Romania and Pakistan.
RPG的起源能被回溯到二战(WWII)德国Panzerfaust,以此为基准苏联已经发展的多种榴弹发射器。在这些之中最成功的设计是RPG-7,在1961年被苏联红军首次上战场使用。自从那以后,武器已经进入超过40个国家的军队服役,而且被包括保加利亚、中国、伊朗、伊拉克、罗马尼亚和巴基斯坦的许多国家仿造。
 
China first obtained the RPG-2 40mm anti-tank RPG in the early 1950s, and began to build its Chinese copy in 1957 under the designation Type 56. However, the rapid development of the new generation main battle tanks (MBTs) in the early 1960s has posed new threats to the PLA, which was later proven in the 1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict. Because the Type 56 was unable to penetrate the armour of the new generation Soviet tanks such as the T-62, the PLA desperately needed a new individual anti-tank weapon to replace the ageing Type 56.
中国在1950年早期中最初获得了RPG-2 40毫米反坦克RPG,而且在指定56式之下在1957年开始制造它的中国仿造型。然而,新一代主战坦克(MBT)的迅速发展在1960年早期已经对PLA造成新的威胁,稍后在1969年中国-苏联边境冲突中证明。因为56式不能够穿透新一代苏联坦克的装甲,像是T-62,PLA急切需要一种新的单兵反坦克武器代替过时的56式。
 
The reverse-engineering on the RPG-7 began in the early 1960s, and made demonstrations to the senior PLA officials in 1964. The Chinese copy of the RPG-7, designated Type 69, received its design certificate in 1970. The weapon entered service with the PLA in the mid-1970s, and took part in the 1979 Sino-Vietnam border conflict to provide platoon-level anti-personnel and anti-obstacle fire support. Its performance was well praised by the troops.
在RPG-7上的逆-向工程在1960年早期开始,而且在1964年对资深的PLA官员完成演示。RPG-7的中国仿造型,指定为69式,在1970年接受它的设计证明书。武器在1970年中期进入PLA服役,而且参加1979年中国-越南边境冲突提供排-层次反-步兵和反-障碍火力支援。它的性能被军队非常称赞。
 
As well as being equipped by the PLA, the Type 69 has also been exported in significant numbers to many foreign customers, including the Mujahideen in Afghanistan under the covered co-operations between China and CIA in the 1980s against the Soviet Union.
除了被PLA装备,69式也已经被输出显著的数目到许多国外客户,包括1980年在中国和中央情报局之间对抗苏联的隐蔽合作下的阿富汗的“圣战者”(Mujahideen)。
 
A standard PLA infantry squad has two Type 69 RPG operators, each carrying one RPG launcher and three grenade rounds. There are also two assistant operators, each carrying three grenade rounds. A squad has a total of two launchers and 12 grenade rounds. In the light infantry troops deployed in the mountain and jungle regions in Southern China, the Type 69 RPG are equipped by the fire support platoon in the infantry company. 
一个标准的PLA步兵班有二名69式RPG操作员,每人携带一套RPG发射装置和三枚榴弹。也有二名辅助操作员,每名携带三枚榴弹。一个班拥有总数为二套发射装置和12枚榴弹。在轻步兵部队部署在中国南方的山地和丛林区域,69式RPG在步兵连的火力支援排装备。 
 
The production of the Type 69 RPG stopped in the mid-1980s. As the weapon become less effective in modern land battlefield, the Type 69 RPG is being gradually replaced by the PF89 40mm anti-tank grenade launcher and the 35mm automatic grenade launcher.
69式RPG的生产在1980年中期停止。因为武器在现代化地面战场中变的减少了有效性,69式RPG被PF89 40毫米反坦克榴弹发射器和35毫米自动榴弹发射器逐渐地代替。
 
DESIGN FEATURES
设计特点
 
The Type 69 is a shoulder-launched, muzzle-loaded anti-tank and anti-personnel grenade launcher which launches a variety of fin-stabilised, over-sized grenades from its 40mm tube. The launcher has an optical daylight sight and (optional) infrared night vision to provide increased fire accuracy. In general, the Type 69 is a low-cost, easy-to-use weapon with a significant firepower. It is sometimes referred to as “infantry artillery” or “pocket artillery”.
69式是一种肩射、发射管口装载的反-坦克和反-人员榴弹发射器,从它的40毫米管发射多种翼-稳定,超-尺寸榴弹。发射装置有一个光学昼间瞄准器和(可选择)红外夜视装置去提供增加发射精度。大体上,69式是具有有效火力的一种低价、简单易用的武器。它有时被称为“步兵火炮”或“袖珍火炮”。
 
Although the design of the grenade launcher hasn’t changed significantly since it was introduced nearly thirty years ago, many new types of grenade rounds have been developed over the years to provide enhanced capabilities, including:
虽然榴弹发射器的设计从它将近被推出三十年以来没有重要地改变,但是许多新型榴弹已经在数年以来被发展提供提增强能力,包括:
 
Anti-personnel high-explosive (HE) round: This is specially designed for jungle and mountain warfare. The HE warhead contains 900 steel balls and 2,000 to 3,000 incendiary pellets that scatter over a 15m radius on detonation.
反-步兵高爆(HE)弹药:这被特别地设计用于丛林和山地战斗。高爆弹头包括有900颗钢球和2,000到3,000颗燃烧弹丸在爆炸中散布15米半径上。
 
Bouncing anti-personnel round: This round works in a similar way to the bouncing anti-personnel fragmentation mines. On impact, it bounces off the ground to a chest to 2m height then airbursts over the target area. The airburst is much more effective than typical blast warheads especially toward entrenched troops. The airburst has a lethal radius of 18m.
跳跃反-人员弹药:弹药工作一个类似反-步兵破片地雷的方式。在冲击上,它从地面跳离到一个胸部至2米高度然后空中爆炸覆盖目标区域。空中爆炸比典型的爆破弹头更有效特别对于以壕沟防护的军队。空中爆炸有一个18米的杀伤半径。
 
Tandem-warhead anti-tank round: This has possibly entered service in the 1990s. The round is specially designed to penetrate the explosive reaction armour (ERA). Although it is not powerful to penetrate the armour of most modern main battle tanks, it is still effective in dealing with lighter targets such as infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) and armoured personnel carriers (APCs).
串联-战斗部反坦克弹药:这在1990年内已经可能进入服役。弹药被特别设计穿透爆炸反应装甲(ERA)。尽管它不能穿透最现代化主战坦克的装甲,它仍然在对付轻型目标像是步兵战车(IFV)和装甲人员输送车(APC)方面有效。
 
Illumination round: The round is has a small parachute to suspend itself in mid air while it burns. The effective range is 600m with the braking ring and 1,500m without it.
照明弹药:弹药有一个小降落伞去在空中悬挂它自己期间它燃烧。有效射程使用制动器止推环(braking ring)?是600米和不使用是1,500米。
 
SPECIFICATIONS
规格
 
Calibre: (launcher tube) 40mm, (grenade) 85mm
Length: 910 mm
Combat Weight: 5.6kg
Grenade Weight: 2.1kg
Round Weight: 1.84 kg
Muzzle Velocity: N/A
Maximum Effective Range: 300m 
Armour Piercing Depth: 380mm (0 degree)
    
口径: (发射管)40 毫米,(榴弹)85 毫米
长度: 910毫米
战斗重量: 5.6 公斤
榴弹重量: 2.1 公斤
弹药重量: 1.84 公斤
初速度: N/A
最大有效射程: 300 米
穿甲深度: 380 毫米(0 度)

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