Chinese Navy Obtains Illegal Aircraft

中国海军获得“非法”飞机

Date:2010-05-17 Source:strategypage By:globalmil Viewed:


Satellite photos recently revealed that the Chinese Navy  J-11 jet fighters. 卫星照片最近显示中国海军的J-11战斗机。

May 16, 2010: Satellite photos recently revealed that the Chinese Navy has received J-11 jet fighters. These are illegal Chinese copies of the Russian Su-27. This plagiarism has been a source of friction between Russia and China for over five years. It all began, legally, in 1995, when China paid $2.5 billion for the right to build 200 Su-27s. Russia would supply engines and electronics, with China building the other components according to Russian plans and specifications. But after 95 of the Chinese built aircraft were built, Russia cancelled the agreement. They claimed that China was using the knowledge acquired with this Su-27 program, to build their own copy of the Su-27, the J-11. Russia kept the piracy issue quiet, and warned the Chinese that simply copying Russian technology would produce an inferior aircraft. Apparently the Chinese did not agree, and are continuing their work on the J-11, using only, what they claim is, Chinese technology.

2010年5月16日:卫星照片最近显示中国海军已经接收到J-11战斗机。这些是中国非法复制俄国的苏-27。五年来这个剽窃已经是俄国和中国之间摩擦的一个源头。这全部的开始,从法律上在1995年,中国支付25亿美元去获得授权制造200架苏-27。俄国将会提供发动机和电子设备,中国按照俄国设计图和说明书制造其它部件。但是在中国制造95架之后,俄国取消了协议。他们宣称中国正在使用从苏-27计划获得的知识,去制造他们自己的Su-27副本,称为J-11。俄国对窃取行为保持沉默,并且警告中国只是复制俄国技术生产一架次等飞机。显然中国并不认同,而且正在继续他们在J-11上的工作,只使用他们声称的中国技术。

The J-11 is believed to now include better electronics and some other Chinese design modifications. China can manufacture most of the components of the J-11, the one major element it must import are the engines. China believes it will be free from dependence on Russia for military jet engines within the next 5-10 years. Currently, China imports two Russian engines, the $3.5 million AL-31 (for the Su-27/30, J-11, J-10) and the $2.5 million RD-93 (a version of the MiG-29s RD-33) for the JF-17 (a F-16 type aircraft developed in cooperation with Pakistan.)

J-11据信目前包括较好的电子设备和其它一些中国的设计修改。中国能制造大部分J-11部件,一个关键因素是它必须引进发动机。中国相信它将在5-10年后将会不再依赖俄国的军用喷气发动机。现在,中国进口二种俄国发动机,三百五十万美元的AL-31型(用于Su-27/30,J-11,J-10)和二百五十万美元的RD-93型(米格-29战机RD-33型的一个版本)用于JF-17(与巴基斯坦合作发展的一种F-16类型飞机)。

Meanwhile, Chinese engineers have managed to master most of the manufacturing techniques needed to make a Chinese copy of the Russian AL31F engine. This Chinese copy, the WS10A, was part of a program that has also developed the WS-13, to replace the RD-93. China has long copied foreign technology, not always successfully. But in the last decade, China has poured much money into developing a jet engine manufacturing capability. The Chinese encountered many of the same problems as the Russians did when developing their own engine design and construction skills. But China has several advantages. First, they know of the mistakes the Russians had made, and so were able to avoid many of them. Then there was the fact that China had better access to Western manufacturing technology (both legally and illegally). Finally, China was, unlike the Soviets, able to develop their engine manufacturing capabilities in a market economy. This was much more efficient than the command economy that the Soviets were saddled with for seven decades.

同时,中国工程师为中国的俄国AL31F发动机副本已经设法克服大部分制造业技术。这一个中国副本称为WS10A,计划的一部分也已经在发展WS-13,用于替代RD-93。中国长期以来复制外国的技术,但不总是成功。但是在最近十年中,中国已经投入很多的资金发展一种喷气发动机制造业能力。中国遇到了多数当时俄国发展他们自己的发动机设计和制造技术时的相同问题。但是中国有一些优势。首先,他们知道俄国已经犯过的错误,因此能够避免许多问题。还有的事实是中国很好的通过西方制造业技术(合法或非法两者途径)。最后,中国不像苏联,在市场经济下有能力发展他们自己的发动机制造业能力。这比苏联负担七十多年之久的指令性经济更加有效率。

The navy already has a regiment of 24 Su-30s (an advanced version of the Su-27), so they have experience with this type . The J-11s will apparently join the Su-30s in defending Chinese naval bases. Some Chinese designed J-10s have also been spotted in navy colors. The navy's offensive airpower comes in the form of J-8s (a two engine version of the MiG-21, which is no good as a fighter, but proved adequate as a bomber) and even older copies of Russian bombers. The J-11 can also be equipped with anti-ship missiles, and may eventually replace the J-8 and other missile carrying naval aircraft.

中国海军已经有24架一个团的Su-30(Su-27的一种先进改型),因此,他们有对这个类型的经验。显然J-11和苏-30联合保护中国海军基地。一些中国设计中国海军风格的J-10也已经被看到。中国海军的进攻型空中力量以J-8组成(米格-21的一种双发动机版本,但不是一种好的战斗机,但是适合当作一种轰炸机)和甚至过时的俄国轰炸机副本。J-11也能装备反舰导弹,并且可能最后代替J-8和其它携带导弹的海军飞机。

The J-8 is an 18 ton, two engine, variant of the MiG-21. This was China's first attempt at building their own aircraft design. But it was not a very original or successful effort. The J-8 first flew in 1969, and didn't get into service until 1980. It was quickly realized that this was a turkey. Fewer than 400 were built. The F-8 carries about three tons of bombs, and is not very maneuverable. China decided to make the most of it, and used the J-8 as a reconnaissance and electronic warfare aircraft. Thus the navy adopted it as well. It was a J-8 that collided with an American EP-3 reconnaissance aircraft off the coast in 2001. The J-8 made the mistake of maneuvering too close to the much slower (propeller driven) EP-3, and crashed. The EP-3 survived and made an emergency landing in China, kicking off months of diplomatic tension.

J-8是一种18吨、双发动机的米格-21改型。这是中国尝试制造的第一种本国的飞机设计。但是它不是一个非常独创或成功的努力。J-8在1969年首飞,而后直到1980年没有进入服役。很快地认识到这是一只“火鸡”(空中目标靶子)。制造了不超过400架。J-8携带大约三吨炸弹,并且非常不容易操作。中国决定充分利用它,并且使用J-8当作一种侦察和电子战飞机。因此中国海军也采用了它。在2001年一架J-8在海面上接近一架美国EP-3侦察飞机时相撞。J-8在接近非常慢的(螺旋桨驱动)EP-3时犯机动错误,而且碰撞(注:此为美方的单方推卸说法)。EP-3幸存并造成在中国紧急降落,开始数个月的外交紧张局势。

The J-11 is a continuation of the J-8 effort, but using more modern technology, and three decades of experience building warplanes. Russian concerns about Chinese inexperience are unfounded. The Chinese have a track record in this area, and the J-11 is apparently the best locally manufactured combat aircraft they have yet produced. With the growing Chinese skill in building jet engines, China has entered the big leagues of warplane manufacturing.

J-11是J-8努力的继续,但是使用更现代化的技术和三十年制造军用飞机的经验。俄国认为中国缺乏经验是没有事实根据地。中国在这一个区域已经有了一个记录,而且J-11显然是最好的本国制造的战斗机,它们已经在生产中。随着越来越多的中国制造喷气式发动机技术,中国已经加入军用机制造业的大联盟。

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