Air Defense: S-350 SAM (Surface to Air Missile), S-400 Budget Version

防空:俄罗斯S-350防空导弹系统,S-400廉价版本

Date:2020-04-05 Source:strategypage By:Globalmil Viewed:


March 31, 2020: Russia has begun crew training for its new S-350 SAM (Surface to Air Missile) system. S-350 is a mobile, medium range missile system that replaces the S-300PS/PT system which entered service in the early 1980s and the Buk M1/2 which entered service in the 1990s. The S-350 is, in effect, “S-400 Lite”. In other words a less expensive SAM system with many S-400 capabilities but not the billion dollar per battery price. S-350 also benefitted from a joint Russian, South Korean effort to develop a new air defense system. That effort eventually fell apart but not before each nation went on their way with valuable tech they had acquired from the other.
2020年3月31日:俄罗斯已开始为其新型S-350 SAM(地空导弹)系统进行操作人员培训。 S-350是一种移动中程导弹系统,代替了1980年初期投入使用的S-300PS/PT系统和1990年代投入使用的“山毛榉-M1/2”(Buk M1/2)。S-350实际上是“ S-400 Lite”。 换句话说,一种便宜的SAM系统具有许多S-400功能,但每单元价格却到不了十亿美元。S-350还受益于俄罗斯和韩国共同开发的新型防空系统。这项努力最终失败了,但并不是在每个国家都用从对方那里获得的有价值的技术进步之前。
 
Development of S-350 began in 2007 and was expedited by borrowing a lot from the S-400 system. For example, S-400 uses several different missiles, all with different ranges. The smallest missile, with the shortest range, is the 9M96 which weighs 400 kg (880 pounds), is 4.6 meters long and is 275mm in diameter. The S-350 uses three versions of 9M96. The 9M96E2 weighs 420 kg and has a range of 120 kilometers. The 9M96E weighs 333 kg and has a range of 60 kilometers. Both of these are 5 meters long and 240mm in diameter. The third missile, the 9M100 weighs under 200 kg and has a range of 15 kilometers. The 9M100 is 2.5 meters long and 125mm in diameter. Thus the S-350 launcher can carry more of the 9M100. It is unclear if the 9M100 is in service yet.
S-350的开发始于2007年,并通过大量借鉴S-400系统而得到了加速。 例如,S-400使用几种不同的导弹,所有导弹的射程都不同。S-350使用三种型号的9M96。最小射程、尺寸最短的是9M96,重400千克(880磅),长4.6米,直径275毫米。 9M96E2重420公斤,射程120公里, 9M96E重333公斤,射程60公里,两者均为5米长,直径为240毫米。另一种导弹9M100的重量不到200公斤,射程为15公里。9M100长2.5米,直径125毫米。 因此,S-350发射器可以携带更多9M100。目前尚不清楚9M100是否已经投入使用。
 
Like the S-300 and KM-SAM, the S-350 uses a modern AESA radar and a very capable fire control system. The Russians got some ideas on the fire control system from the South Koreans, who are one of the most advanced electronics developers in the world. South Korea also develops its own AESA radars. The main Russian contribution to the KM-SAM was the 9M96 missile, which uses a South Korean guidance system. The S-350 search radar is based on one used for the S-400 and is believed to have a range of at least 400 kilometers.
与俄罗斯S-300和韩国KM-SAM一样,S-350使用现代化AESA雷达和功能强大的火控系统。俄罗斯从韩国那里得到了一些有关火控系统的想法,韩国是世界上最先进的电子开发商之一。韩国还开发了自己的AESA雷达。俄罗斯对KM-SAM的主要贡献是使用韩国制导系统的9M96导弹。S-350搜索雷达基于S-400所使用的雷达,据信其范围至少为400公里。
 
An S-350 battery consists of one or two 50N6A truck-mounted search radars, one fire control station vehicle and up to eight launchers, each carrying 12 9M93E or E2 missiles. The launcher vehicles are 8x8 trucks while the radar and fire control system uses a 6x6 truck. A S-350 battery can halt and be ready to fire in five minutes. Russia is believed to have sent an S-350 battery to Syria in 2017 for field testing. The radar was operated but no missiles were fired. The radar can track up to 40 targets simultaneously and guide up to missiles simultaneously at aircraft 16 targets or 12 ballistic missiles. The S-350 claims to have anti-missile capabilities similar to the U.S. Patriot system.
一套S-350单元由一台或两台安装在卡车上的50N6A搜寻雷达,一辆火控站车辆和最多八个发射装置组成,每个发射装置装有12枚9M93E或E2导弹。发射车是8x8卡车,而雷达和火控系统使用6x6卡车。S-350单元可能会停下来,并准备在五分钟内发射。据信俄罗斯已于2017年向叙利亚运送了S-350单元进行现场测试。雷达已启动,但没有发射导弹。雷达可以同时跟踪多达40个目标,并可以同时引导导弹到16架飞机或12枚弹道导弹目标。S-350声称具有类似于美国“爱国者”系统的反导能力。



 
S-350 is the Russian version of the joint South Korean-Russia effort to develop the KM-SAM for South Korea. KM-SAM entered service in 2018. China was not be pleased because KM-SAM is the first step in a South Korean effort to develop an anti-missile capability similar to what the American Patriot system has. KM-SAM (or just M-SAM) development began in 2001 with the help of a Russian firm. KM-SAM is mobile and each battery has six launcher vehicles each carrying an eight-cell storage-launcher box. Each missile weighs 400 kg and has a range of 40 kilometers. The missile is based on the Russian 9K96 that is used by the S-350. Another vehicle carries the 3-D phased array radar and fire control system (which can track six targets simultaneously). The radar and fire control are South Korean and much improved over the American Hawk systems South Korea has been using since the 1960s. KM-SAM and American Patriot systems will eventually replace the 24 Hawk batteries South Korea has been using for decades. South Korea will continue the development of KM-SAM to include a version with anti-missile capabilities similar to the Patriot PAC-3 and eventually surpass even that with a version called L-SAM that is to have an effective range of 150 kilometers and max altitude of 30,000 meters.
S-350是韩俄共同合作为韩国开发KM-SAM的俄罗斯型号。KM-SAM于2018年开始在韩国服役。中国对此不乐观,因为KM-SAM是韩国努力发展类似于美国爱国者系统的反导能力的第一步。在一家俄罗斯公司的帮助下,KM-SAM(或简称为M-SAM)的开发始于2001年。KM-SAM是可机动的,每套单元都有六辆发射车辆各自携带装有一个八单元仓储发射筒。每枚导弹重400公斤,射程40公里。该导弹基于S-350使用的俄罗斯9K96型导弹。另一辆车装有3-D相控阵雷达和火控系统(可同时跟踪六个目标)。雷达和火控系统是韩国制造的,与韩国自1960年代以来一直使用的美国“霍克”系统相比有很大改进。KM-SAM和美国“爱国者”系统最终将取代韩国数十年来一直使用的24套“霍克”(Hawk)单元。韩国将继续开发KM-SAM,以包括具有类似于爱国者PAC-3的反导能力的型号,并最终甚至超过称为L-SAM的型号,后者的有效射程可达150公里,最大射高30,000米。
 
The current KM-SAM is a big improvement over Hawk. Each Hawk battery has six towed launchers, each carrying three of the 590 kg (1,290 pound) Hawk missiles. In addition, there are radar, control center and maintenance vehicles. Since the 1960s over 40,000 Hawk missiles were produced and bought by the nearly 30 countries that used (or still use) Hawk. While Hawk has been upgraded since it entered service in 1959, some countries have gone beyond that. Back in 2011, South Korea revealed that it was working on an Iron Hawk II anti-aircraft missile system and some early models were built to replace three existing U.S. Hawk missile battalions. This was what became M-SAM and introduced the use of a launcher truck with missiles in sealed storage/firing containers. The original Hawk did not use the container system. Iron Hawk missiles have a max range of 40 kilometers and a max altitude of 15,000 meters (46,500 feet). The search radar (with a max range of 100 kilometers) guides missiles part of the way before the missiles' own guidance system takes over for the final approach. Because the main military threat, North Korea, is right next to South Korea, Hawk range is not a big issue.
当前的KM-SAM是对“霍克”(Hawk)的重大改进。每套“霍克”单元都有六个牵引式发射装置,每个发射装置携带着三枚590千克(1,290磅)“霍克”导弹。此外,还有雷达,控制中心和维修车辆。自1960年代以来,使用(或仍在使用)“霍克”的近30个国家生产和购买了40,000多枚“霍克”导弹。自从1959年“霍克”服役以来,“霍克”进行了升级,但一些国家已经超越了这一范围。早在2011年,韩国就透露正在研发Iron Hawk II防空导弹系统,并制造了一些早期型号来取代现有的三个美国“霍克”营。这就是后来的M-SAM,并采用了导弹在密闭仓储/发射筒中的发射车辆。初始的“霍克”没有使用仓储系统。Iron Hawk导弹的最大射程为40公里,最大高度为15,000米(46,500英尺)。搜索雷达(最大距离为100公里)在导弹自己的制导系统接管最终逼近目标之前,会部分引导导弹。由于主要的军事威胁朝鲜紧临韩国,因此“霍克”射程不是一个大问题。

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