|DongFeng 5 (CSS-4) Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
Date:2013-10-26 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:
The DF-5 is China's first operational ICBM.DF-5是中国第一种操作的ICBM
The Dong Feng-5 (DF-5, NATO codename: CSS-4) is China’s first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Developed by China Academy of Launch Vehicle (CALT, also known as 1st Aerospace Academy), it is a silo-based, two-stage, liquid propellant ballistic missile. The missile carries a single 3 megatons nuclear warhead and has an effective range of 12,000km. The DF-5A is the improved variant with an extended range. The PLA currently deploys approximately 24~36 of this missile deployed in central China.
Following the success of the DF-4 (CSS-3) long-range ballistic missile, in 1964 China began to develop its first true ICBM capable of reaching the United States. The same design was also later used to develop China’s Chang Zheng (Long March) family space launch vehicle and became the foundation of the Chinese space programme.
In the whole 1970s, the Chinese space activities were slowed down to prepare for the experimental fire tests of the DF-5 ICBM. However throughout the 1970s, the DF-5 became, amongst a lot of other defence projects, a casualty of the political chaos spawned from the Cultural Revolution. The first test launch of the DF-5 took place in September 1971 at Jiuquan (Shuang Cheng Zi). After the slow start, intense development began in the late 1970s with five extensive live tests in 1979 alone (7 January, 15 July, 21 August, 4 September, and possibly another one in October). The final test shot was fired in February 1980.
在整个1970年，中国空间活动减慢准备进行DF-5 ICBM实验发射测试。然而在1970年自始至终，DF-5结果由于某些原因没有进行。在开始减缓之后，迅速发展在1970年后期开始。DF-5的第一次试射1971年9月在酒泉（Shuang Cheng Zi）进行。在1979年进行了五次实弹测试（1月7日、7月15日、8月21日、9月4日和可能另外一次在10月）。最后测试发射在1980年2月。
The DF-5 ICBM was demonstrated in the 1984 military parade to celebrate the 35th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.DF-5 ICBM在1984年庆祝中华人民共和国成立第35周年阅兵式上展示
By 1980 China had overcome the slowdown in nuclear development caused by the Cultural Revolution and had some spectacular successes in its strategic weapons programme. Preparation for full-range tests base exercises at the Shuang Cheng Zi site and ship exercises in the Yellow Sea began in March 1980. Finally, on 18 and 21 May, two long-range shots were made into the Pacific Ocean, where it was recovered by a PLA naval task force. The first missile travelled approximately 9,500 km from the launch site to an area bounded by the Gilbert Islands, the Solomons, Fiji, and the New Hebrides, with splash-down occurring at 02:30 Greenwich mean time, while details of the second fire remain unknown.
The DF-5 entered operational service in 1981, and were deployed in hardened constructions in central China. Initially the DF-5 was deployed in a similar style as the DF-4 long-range ballistic missile. The missile was stored in a horizontal position in tunnels under high mountains, and are launched immediately outside the mouth of the tunnel. The fuelling operation of the missile normally requires two hours.
The DF-5 ICBM on the launch pad.在发射台上的DF-5 ICBM
The improved DF-5 is launched from hardened silo.改进型DF-5A从硬化发射井中发射
Later production variants of the DF-5 and improved DF-5A are probably deployed in silos and maintained in a ready-to-fire status. In order to enhance the survivability of these missiles, the PLA has constructed a large number of decoy silos which consist of shallow holes excavations with headworks that resemble operational silos. Sophisticated engineering and the introduction of the computerised launch control systems have greatly decreased the launch preparation time of these missiles.
The exact number of the missile in service remains highly classified, and observer estimations vary significantly, ranging from less than 10 to over 30. According to some reports, by 2000 the DF-5 forces of the PLA Second Artillery Corps consisted of three brigades.
The first, the 803rd brigade, was established in October 1984, the 35th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Presently, this brigade is located near Huaihua, within the deep mountains of Hunan province, around 750km north-west of Guangzhou. The 803rd is considered an excellent model of the service, never missing its targets in any exercise. This brigade was equipped entirely with improved DF-5A ICBMs and related equipment by the mid-1990s.
The second brigade is the 804th brigade and was organised at the end of the 1980s. It is located inside a mountain range in the western part of Henan province, not far from Luoyang City (around 700km southwest of Beijing). Early 1995, China's media reported that the “Great Wall Project ” for China's strategic missile force was finally completed after ten years of construction in the Tai-Hang Mountain Range between Hebei and Shanxi provinces. According to the news reports, "tens of thousands" of Army engineers spent over 10 years there digging tunnels. According to some reports, this facility enables DF-4 and DF-5 missiles to be stored and mobilised through underground tunnels to increase their survivability. The 804th brigade is most likely to be associated to this facility considering its location.
第二个，第804旅，在1980年结束的时候建立。它位于河南省西部的太行山内, 离洛阳（Luoyang）市不很远（在北京西南大约700公里）。早在1995年，中国的媒体报道用于中国战略导弹的“长城计划”，最后在10年之后完成，在河北省和山西省之间的太行山内。依照新闻报道，“好几万”军队工程人员花费10年开挖隧道。 依照一些报道，这些设施允许DF-4和DF-5导弹能够被储存并且机动穿越地下隧道增加他们的生存性。第804旅考虑它的位置有可能在这些设施内部署。
The third unit, known as the 818th brigade, was established in 1996 and is subordinated to Hunan province, like the 803rd. Formation of the 818th was said to have completed in 1999.
Each brigade operates about 8~12 missiles. By the year 2000, all three brigades had been equipped with improved DF-5A ICBMs.
The DF-5 carries a single 3 megatons nuclear warhead. Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle (MIRV) warhead capability was in mind when the DF-5 was developed as with the CZ-2C commercial rocket, a twin of the DF-5 that has the ability to launch four satellites in a single load. Although the DF-5 can be modified for MIRV capability, none is known be have done so. This is very likely a policy decision not to upset the strategic balance of power. But even with the deployment of US TMD/NMD imminent, MIRV conversion of the DF-5 seems unlikely. Such necessity rests upon the new generation of ICBMs such as DF-31.
The second stage of the DF-5 ICBM.DF-5 ICBM的第二级
The DF-5 is equipped with four veneer rocket motors for steering and sustaining propulsion for a further 190 seconds after the shutting of the main motor, and enabling a wide aiming arc for the re-entry vehicles in the upper atmosphere. A further development of the DF-5 is the DF-5A, with a range augmentation to over 13,000 km and an improved inertial guidance system.
The first stage of the DF-5 utilises a YF-6 rocket motor, which consists of four 75-ton thrust YF-20 chambers motors (with swinging nozzles) burning N2O4/UDMH. The second stage utilises a YF-24 rocket motor consisting of one 75-ton thrust YF-22 motor (with fixed nozzles) and a YF-23F swivelling venire motor with four 4.8-ton thrust chambers burning N2O4/UDMH. The missile has an effective range of 12,000km and delivers a payload of 3,000kg. The improved DF-5 has an effective range of 13,000km.
Early variant of the DF-5 required up to two hours in fuelling time prior to launch, but this might have been reduced on the improved DF-5A.
Configuration: Two stage liquid
Launch Weight: 183,000kg
Propellant: Liquid fuel (Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide mix [UDMH/N2H4])
Guidance: Inertial with onboard computer
Range: 12,000km (DF-5); >13,000km (DF-5A)
Deployment: Silo and launch pad
Re-entry Vehicle Mass: ~3,000kg
Warhead: Single 3,000~5,000kT
Launch Preparation Time: 120 min (mobile), or 45~60 min (in silo)
长度： 33 m
直径： 3.4 m
发射重量： 183,000 kg
推进剂： 液体燃料（非对称二甲基胼（Dimethylhydrazine）/氮四氧化物(Nitrogen Tetroxide）混合[UDMH/N2H4]）
射程： 12,000 公里（DF-5）；>13,000 公里（DF-5 A）
再返回运载工具质量： ~3,000 kg
弹头： 单一 3,000~5,000 kT
圆概率误差（CEP）： ~1,000 m
发射准备时间： 120 分钟，或45~60 分钟（在发射井中）
Date Last Updated: 2 April 05
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