DongFeng 3 (CSS-2) Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile

中国DF-3(CSS-2)中程弹道导弹

Date:2013-10-26 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:


The DF-3 is China’s first operational intermediate-range ballistic missile. The missile is a single-stage, liquid-propellant design carrying a single nuclear warhead.“东风”(DongFeng)-3是中国第一种中程弹道导弹(IRBM)。导弹是单级,液体推进设计能携带一枚单一的核弹头。

The DongFeng-3 (DF-3, NATO designation: CSS-2) is a single-warhead, single-stage, liquid-propellant, intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM). Developed in the 1960, it is China's first independently developed ballistic missile. The DF-3A is the improved variant with extended range developed in the early 1980s. A total of 150~200 DF-3/3A missiles are believed to have been deployed, with 30~40 remaining in service today.

“东风”(DongFeng)-3(DF-3,北约组织名称:CSS-2)是一种单弹头,单级,液体推进中程弹道导弹(IRBM)。在1960年发展,它是中国第一种自主发展的弹道导弹。DF-3A是延长射程的改良型,在1980年初期发展。总数150~200枚DF-3/3A导弹据信已经被部署,目前保留30~40枚在服役中。

PROGRAMME

Following the success in the DF-1 short-range and DF-2 medium-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile, China began to develop a brand new design with intermediate-range in the early 1960s. Unlike the DF-1 and DF-2, which were both developed from the Soviet R-2 ballistic missile, the new intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a totally new design. Several design proposals were compared before the storable liquid fuel rocket with a cascade compensation inertial guidance design was finally chosen in early 1964. Three flying tests were carried out between December 1966 and May 1967, and the missile entered operational service in 1970 as DF-3.

计划

在成功发展DF-1和DF-2近程地对地弹道导弹之后,中国在1960年早期开始发展更有能力的中程弹道导弹DF-3。导弹被打算拥有2,500公里的最大射程,对攻击东亚的美国基地是充足的。不像DF-1和DF-2,两者都是基于苏联R-2弹道导弹发展,新的中程弹道导弹(IRBM)是完全新的设计。几种设计方案经过对照,最终在1964年挑选出来耐贮存液体燃料火箭采用级联补偿惯性制导设计,在1966年12月至1967年5月进行三次飞行测试,而且导弹在1970年进入操作服役称为DF-3。


The DF-3 was originally designed to cover the U.S. bases in the Far East, with about 150~200 missiles reported to have been deployed. A further 50~100 DF-3A missiles have been deployed since the late 1980s.中国DF-3导弹的设计去计划覆盖美国在东亚的基地,大约150~200枚导弹据报道已经部署,进一步50~100枚DF-3A导弹已经从1980年起部署。


In additional to nuclear warhead, the DF-3 can also be configured to carry conventional high-explosive warhead. The missile has a payload of 2,000kg.“东风”(DongFeng)-3携带一枚单一核弹头,也能携带一枚高爆战斗部。导弹负载2,000kg。

The 2,500km-range DF-3 was designed to over the U.S. bases in Eastern Asia. The missile has a payload of 2,000kg, which was expected to be the weight of the hydrogen bomb under development in China at that time. By the late 1970s, around 100~150 missiles are believed to have been deployed in PLA Second Artillery Corps bases in Jilin, Jiangxi, Yunnan and Qinghai. Depending on their deployment locations, these missiles can reach Japan, Philippine, South and Central Asia respectively.

2,500公里-射程的DF-3设计目的去覆盖美国在东亚的基地。导弹载荷2,000 公斤,猜测那是中国处在发展中的氢炸弹重量。在1970年后期,大约100~150枚导弹据信已经部署在PLA第二炮兵在吉林,江西(Jiangxi),云南(Yunnan)和青海(Qinghai)的基地。依靠它们的部署位置,这些导弹能各自到达日本,菲律宾,南亚和中亚。

In 1981 China began to develop the DF-3A with an extended range of 2,800km as well as improved accuracy. The flying tests took place successfully in December 1985 and January 1986. Unconfirmed reports suggest that China may have tried to develop a multiple re-entry vehicle (MRV) type for the DF-3 but this was unsuccessful. A conventional high-explosive warhead variant of the DF-3A was developed for an export order to Saudi Arabia in 1987. Since the late 1990s, the PLA began to gradually phase out the early variant DF-3 missiles and replace them with the more capable DF-21.

中国在1980年代早期开始发展一种改良改型的DF-3A,第一次成功的测试飞行在1986年。导弹有一个延长的射程和改良的精度。一个传统的高爆弹头改型在1987年为对沙特阿拉伯的一个输出定购而发展。没有被证实的报告暗示中国可能已经试着为DF-3再发展多弹头重返大气层运载工具(MRV)型,但是这是不成功的。自从1990年后期以后,DF-3已经逐渐地被更有能力的固体推进剂DF-21导弹代替。

OPERATIONAL STATUS

The DF-3 entered operational service in 1970, with about 150~200 missiles reported to have been deployed. A further 50~100 DF-3A missiles have been deployed since the late 1980s. China also exported 60~120 conventional warhead DF-3 missiles to Saudi Arabia, though no known test launch has been made in the country.

操作状态

DF-3在1970年进入了操作服役,大概150~200枚导弹据传闻已经被部署。 进一步的50~100枚DF-3 A导弹已经从1980年后期以后被部署。中国对沙特阿拉伯输出了60~120枚传统弹头DF-3 导弹,虽然没有已知的试射在这个国家被安排。


The DF-3 is launched from fixed launch pad, and is road-mobile on a four-wheel carriage towed by 8X8 heavylift truck.DF-3从固定的发射台发射,而且在由8X8重型卡车牵引的四轮拖车架上公路机动。

The DF-3 is launched from fixed launch pad, and is road-mobile on a four-wheel carriage towed by 8X8 heavylift truck. Possible launch bases of the DF-3 include Dalong, Datong, Dengshahe, Dienwei, Fungrun, Jianshui, Kunming, Lianxiwang, Liujikou, Tonghua, Wuwei, Xian and Yidu. The DF-3 training facility is located in Wuwei, Gansu Province.

DF-3从固定的发射台被发射,而且是在一辆8X8重运力卡车上的公路机动运输装置(并非是车载平台发射)。DF-3的可能发射基地包括Dalong,Datong,Dengshahe,Dienwei,Fungrun,Jianshui,Kunming,Lianxiwang,Liujikou Tonghua,Wuwei,西安和Yidu。DF-3训练设备位于甘肃省Wuwei。


The DF-3 uses a single-stage liquid-fuel rocket motor, which requires a time-consuming complex  fuelling process before the missile is ready for launch.采用液体燃料的DF-3导弹在发射前需要进行复杂的准备。

MISSILE DESIGNS

The DF-3 is a single-stage, single-warhead intermediate-range ballistic missile system. The maximum range is 2,500km (2,800km for DF-3A). It uses storable liquid propellants and a cluster of four engines. The pre-launch preparation time is reported to be between 2 and 3 hours. However, if the payload were reduced, then the DF-3A version would have the capability to achieve a range of about 4,000km.

导弹设计

DF-3是一种单级、单弹头中程弹道导弹系统。最大的射程2,500公里(2,800公里为DF-3 A)。它使用耐储存液体推进剂和四台集群发动机。预先发射准备时间据报告在2到3小时之间。然而,如果载荷被减少,那么DF-3 A型会有能力达到大概4,000公里的射程。

The DF-3 uses vanes in the efflux nozzles for control during the boost phase of flight. The motor consists of a cluster of four YF-2 engines which use storable liquids, Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH) fuel and AK-27 oxidiser (nitric acid with 27% nitrogen tetroxide), and provide a total thrust of 96 tonnes. The motors have a burn time of around 140 seconds. This gives the DF-3 missile a minimum range of 750km and a maximum range of 2,650km. At maximum range, the peak velocity of DF-3 will be 4.7km/s. DF-3 has a separating warhead assembly, weighing 2,150kg.

DF-3使用叶片在发动机喷嘴用于在飞行推进阶段控制。发动机由四台集群YF-2发动机组成,使用耐储存液体不对称二甲肼(UDMH)燃料和AK-27液氧(硝酸和27%氮四氧化物),而且提供96吨的一个总推力。发动机燃烧时间140秒左右。这提供DF-3导弹最小射程750公里和2,650公里的最大射程。在最大射程,CSS-2的最高速度将会达到4.7公里/秒。DF-3有一个分离的整装弹头,重2,150公斤。

WARHEAD

The missile uses an inertial guidance, with an estimated CEP of 1,000~4,000m. The missile carries a 2,000~3,000kT yield nuclear warhead, but can also configured to carry a conventional HE warhead. The improved DF-3A version has an accuracy improved to 1,000m CEP.

弹头

导弹使用惯性制导,据估计圆概率误差(CEP)1,000~4,000米。导弹携带一枚2,000~3,000 kT当量核弹头,但是也配置去携带一枚传统的高爆弹头。改良的DF-3 A型圆概率误差(CEP)达到1,000米。

SPECIFICATIONS

Configuration: Single stage liquid
Length: 21.2m
Diameter: 2.25m
Launch Weight: 64,000kg
Propellant: Liquid fuel (Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide mix [UDMH/N2H4])
Guidance: Inertial
Range: 2,500km (DF-3); 2,800km (DF-3A)
Deployment: Launch pad + road mobile
Re-entry Vehicle Mass: 2,150kg
Warhead: Single 1,000~3,000kT
CEP: 2,000~3,000m (DF-3); 1,000m (DF-3A)
Launch Preparation Time: 120~180 min

规格

配置:单级液体
长度:21.2 米
直径:2.25 米
发射重量:64,000 公斤
推进剂:液体燃料(不对称二甲肼(UDMH)燃料/氮四氧化物混合[UDMH/N2H4])
制导:惯性
射程: 2,500 公里(DF-3);2,800 公里(DF-3 A)
配置:发射台 + 公路机动
多弹头重返大气层运载工具(MRV):2,150 公斤
弹头:单一 1,000~3,000 kT
圆概率误差(CEP):2,000~3,000 米(DF-3);1,000 米(DF-3 A)
发射准备时间:120~180 分钟

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