Shenyang J-31

中国沈阳J-31型隐形战斗机

Date:2017-08-02 Source:wikipedia By:Globalmil Viewed:


 
J-31 prototype
J-31原型

 
Role Stealth multirole fighter
National origin China
Manufacturer Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Designer Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
First flight 31 October 2012[1]
Introduction 2018-19 (estimated)
Status Flight testing
Number built 3 prototypes
角色 隐形多功能战机
生产国 中国
制造商 沈阳飞机公司
设计 沈阳飞机公司
首飞 2012年10月31日
引进 2018年-19年(估计)
状态 飞行测试
制造数量 3架原型
 
The Shenyang J-31(or "FC-31 fifth Generation Multi-Purpose Medium Fighter") also known as the "Gyrfalcon" (鹘鹰), or "Falcon Hawk" by some military enthusiasts,is a twin-engine, mid-size fifth-generation jet fighter currently under development by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation. The fighter has also been referred to as the "F-60" or "J-21 Snowy Owl" (雪鸮) in some media reports.Its official name is Shenyang FC-31; J-xx nomenclatures in the Chinese military are reserved to programs launched and financed by the army, while this plane was developed by a state-owned company.
沈阳歼-31型(或“FC-31第五代多用途中型战斗机”)也被称为“鹘鹰”(Gyrfalcon),或被一些军事爱好者称为“隼鹰”,是目前由沈阳飞机公司发展的一种双发中型第五代战斗机。在一些媒体的报道中战斗机也被称为“F-60”或“J21 雪鸮”(Snowy Owl)。它的正式名称是沈阳FC-31型;中国军方的J-xx命名法则是由军队发起和资助的方案保留的,而这架飞机是由国有公司开发的。

 
Development
发展
 
A photo of a model labeled F-60 was posted on the Internet in September 2011.In June 2012, photos and camera video clips started to emerge on internet about a heavily overwrapped possible F-60 prototype being road-transferred on a highway, earning the nickname "the zongzi plane" (粽子机) among Chinese netizens, though some suspect it of merely being a L-15 trainer aircraft.Pictures of a possibly fully assembled aircraft parking on an airfield emerged on September 15–16, 2012.The F-60 is reported to be the export version, where the J-31 would be the domestic Chinese version of the same fighter.Chinese aviation expert Xu Yongling has called the J-31 an export-oriented low-end latest generation warplane.
一张标有F-60型号的照片于2011年9月在互联网上公布。2012年6月,照片和摄像视频剪辑在互联网上开始出现涉及一架大量缠绕包裹疑似F-60原型机在高速公路上转运,赢得中国网民“粽子机”(the zongzi plane)的昵称,虽然有人怀疑这只是一架L-15型教练机。2012年9月15日至16日,可能完全组装的飞机机在场上停放图片出现。 F-60据报道是出口型,其中J-31将是同一种战机的国内型号。中国航空专家徐勇凌(Xu Yongling)称J-31一种外销低端最新一代战机。
 
Flight testing
飞行测试
 
The prototype conducted a high-speed taxiing test and briefly became airborne. On 31 October 2012, prototype No. 31001 conducted the model's maiden flight.It was accompanied by two J-11 fighters in a ten-minute test flight with its landing gear lowered.
原型机进行了高速滑行测试和短暂起降。2012年10月31日,31001号原型进行了该型号的首飞,两架J-11型战机伴飞在十分钟的试飞中未收起起落架。
 
With the maiden test flight of the prototype No.31001 on October 31, 2012, China became the second nation after the 1991 Advanced Tactical Fighter fly off, to have two stealth fighter designs in field-testing at the same time.The aircraft has continued a limited test program, with footage emerging of further flights which took place in February 2013.
随着2012年10月31日编号31001号原型的首次飞行试验后,中国成为自1991年后“先进战术战斗机”(指F-22)飞行后的第二个国家,拥有两种隐形战斗机设计同时在现场测试。该飞机继续进行有限的测试计划,其中2013年2月出现了进行进一步飞行的影像。
 
Public unveiling
公开亮相
 
A 1/4 scale model of the J-31 was shown at the China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition 2012, hinting at a desire to offer the aircraft for export, as an alternative for those countries that cannot purchase the F-35.
2012年中国国际航空航天展览会上展示了J-31的1/4尺寸模型,暗示有意为出口提供飞机,作为不能购买F-35国家的一种替代型号。

 
The J-31 airframe was publicly unveiled on November 12, 2014 at Zhuhai Airshow.In TV broadcast of the unveiling, AVIC chairman Lin Zuoming claimed that funding for the aircraft came entirely from the company, with no input from military.
J-31整机于2014年11月12日在珠海航展上公开亮相。中航工业公司董事长林左鸣(Lin Zuoming )在电视直播中称,飞机的资金完全来自公司,没有军方投入。


The J-31 airframe was publicly unveiled on November 12, 2014 at Zhuhai Airshow.
J-31整机于2014年11月12日在珠海航展上公开亮相。
 
As typical in flight displays of fighter jets, afterburners were engaged throughout the maneuvers. Nevertheless, Western media claimed it to be evidence of aerodynamic inefficiencies, concluding that the aircraft "bleeds a lot of energy and the pilot had a hard time keeping the nose up." Flights were done when the jet was "clean," so results would be worse when fitted with a combat loadout. However, a large-scale model of the FC-31 on display did show some detail changes of configuration compared to the flying prototype.
在战斗机的飞行展示中,在演习中发动机自始至终打开加力。尽管如此,西方媒体声称它是空气动力学效率低下的证据,并得出结论,飞机“大量出血,飞行员难以忍受鼻子向上”。飞行要在喷气发动机“干推力”时完成,所以当配备战斗装备时,结果会更糟。然而,一个大尺寸FC-31模型与飞行原型相比显示出配置的一些细节变化。
 
At the 2015 Dubai Airshow, AVIC released more details regarding the aircraft's capabilities. The company revealed it is still looking for a partner in the aircraft project, and is actively marketing the aircraft to People's Liberation Army Air Force. AVIC's plan is to have a production model first flight by 2019.
在2015年迪拜航展期间,航空工业公司发布了有关飞机能力的更多细节。该公司透露,目前仍在寻找飞机项目的合作伙伴,并积极向人民解放军空军推销飞机。中航工业公司(AVIC)的计划生产型号在2019年前首飞。
 
Future
未来
 
Due to mixed reports from China, it is unknown as to whether the J-31 will be inducted as a naval fighter, or only intended for foreign customers.In one interview with China's state media, the J-31's chief designer Sun Cong expressed his hope that the aircraft would follow his J-15 onto China's aircraft carriers.However, officials from AVIC only said that the aircraft was intended for export as a competitor to the F-35.
由于来自中国的形形色色报道,目前尚不清楚J-31是否将被引入海军战机,还是只针对外国客户。在接受中国国家媒体采访时,J-31的首席设计师孙聪表示希望这架飞机能够跟随他的J-15型到中国的航空母舰。不过,中航工业公司的官员只是说这架飞机是出口作为F-35的竞争对手。
 
In 2015, Jiangsu A-Star Aviation Industries Company marketed its EOTS-86 infra-red search and track as a possible addition to the J-31.
2015年,江苏A-Star航空工业公司推出了EOTS-86红外搜索和追踪作为J-31的可能增加。
 
An improved prototype, with modifications to the vertical stabilizers, wings, and airframe, an electro-optical targeting system, a larger payload, improvements in stealth, and upgraded electronics, made its maiden flight in December 2016.
一架改进的原型,对垂直尾翼,机翼和机身进行了修改,一部光电瞄准系统,更大的有效载荷,改进隐形和升级电子设备,在2016年12月进行了首飞。
 
Design
设计
 
J-31 incorporates certain stealth characteristics such as forward swept intake ramps with diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) bumps and a two-piece canopy.
J-31具有一定的隐身特性,如前掠进气坡道采用无附面层隔板超音速进气(DSI)凸起和两段式座舱罩。
 
Airframe
机体
 
The J-31 is smaller than the Chengdu J-20. The use of twin-wheel nose landing gear led to speculations that the J-31 may have been intended to be a carrier based fighter.Bill Sweetman has cited several improvements to the F-35C design files the Chinese may have acquired in the J-31.Like the F-35, the J-31 has two internal weapons bays that can each carry two medium range missiles, along with two heavy hardpoints and one light hardpoint on each wing, but while it seems to have added an additional light hardpoint to each wing over the capacity of the F-35, it seems to lack the capacity of the F-35 to mount a centerline gunnery or jamming pod.
J-31比成都J-20小。使用双轮前起落架导致了J-31可能是打算成为基于舰载战机的猜测。比尔·斯卫特曼(Bill Sweetman,航空周刊(Aviation Weekly)编辑)列举了中国可能对获得的F-35C设计文件进行了几项改进应用在J-31上。像F-35,J-31有两个内部武器舱,每个都可以携带两枚中程导弹,每个机翼上有两个重硬挂点和一个轻硬挂点,但似乎每个机翼增加了一个轻硬挂点超过F-35的能力,但似乎缺乏F-35的能力来安装一个中心线外挂机炮吊舱或干扰吊舱。
 
Officials from AVIC claimed that additive manufacturing was extensively used on the aircraft, resulting in 50% reduction in components compared to similar aircraft. However, the resulting airframe cannot be disassembled, and the static test frame had to be transported in whole as a consequence.
航空工业公司的官员声称,在飞机上广泛使用叠加制造技术(又称3D打印技术),与同类飞机相比,部件减少了50%。然而,所得到的机身不能拆卸,因此静态测试架必须整体运输。
 
Engines
发动机
 
According to Vladimir Barkovsky of Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (formerly known as the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau), the engines on the prototype aircraft are RD-93s.However, China already has an engine similar to the RD-93, the Guizhou WS-13 currently installed on the JF-17 which has the same thrust and size of the Russian RD-93. China is working on an improved variant named WS-13E with 100KN of thrust for use on the J-31. Lin Zuoming, chairman of China's AVIC, has said that he hopes to put domestic engines on the fighter.As the Chinese build up confidence in newer, more reliable and powerful domestic engines, they may be able to power the J-31 sooner than the larger J-20 and in greater numbers.
据米格俄罗斯飞机公司(原名Mikoyan-Gurevich设计局)的弗拉基米尔·巴尔科夫斯基(Vladimir Barkovsky)说,原型机上的发动机是RD-93型。然而,中国已经有一台类似RD-93型的发动机,贵州WS-13型目前安装在JF-17上,具有与俄罗斯RD-93型相同的推力和尺寸。中国正在研制一种名为WS-13E的改进型号,具有100KN的推力用于J-31。中国航空工业公司董事长林左鸣表示,他希望将国内发动机投入到战机上。随着中国人对国内更新,更可靠,更强大的发动机的信心,他们可能在动力上J-31比较大的J-20型抢先和更大的数字。
 
Payload
有效载荷
 
The J-31 can carry 8000 kg (17637 lb) of payload, with four munitions totaling 2000 kg (4409 lb) internally, and 6000 kg (13228 lb) carried on six external hardpoints; primary armaments include the PL-10 short-range missile and SD-10A medium-range air-to-air missile. It has a combat radius of 648 nmi (746 mi; 1,200 km) and a maximum take-off weight of 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
J-31可以携带8000公斤(17637磅)的有效载荷,连同内部共计2000公斤(4409磅)四枚弹药,六个外部硬挂点装载6000公斤(13228磅);主要武器包括PL-10短程导弹和SD-10A中程空对空导弹。战斗半径为648海里(746英里;1,200公里),最大起飞重量为25,000公斤(55,000磅)。
 
Stealth
隐形
 
The J-31 is speculated to use stealth coatings instead of "baked in" fiber-mat stealth.AVIC claimed the aircraft to be stealthy against L-band and Ku-band radars, and would be low-observable against a number of multi-spectrum sensors.
J-31被推测使用隐形涂层,而不是“烘烤”的纤维层隐形。AVIC声称飞机对L波段和Ku波段雷达是隐身的,并且对于一些多波束光谱传感器将低可观测。
 
Foreign reactions
外部反应
 
The appearance of the J-31 raised concern about a potential arms race in Asia, as some of China's neighbors pursuing the development of their own fifth generation aircraft i.e. India with their HAL AMCA and HAL FGFA, Japan with Mitsubishi X-2 and South Korea with KAI KF-X or consider purchasing the F-35 and PAK FA.
J-31的出现引起了亚洲潜在的军备竞赛的担忧,因为一些中国邻国正在开发自己的第五代飞机,印度和他们的HAL AMCA和HAL FGFA,日本的三菱X-2和韩国的KAI KF-X或考虑购买F-35和PAK FA。
 
U.S. military and industry officials believe that once the J-31 enters service, it will automatically be a match for existing fourth-generation fighters like the F-15 Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, and F/A-18 Super Hornet. They suggest that the capability of the J-31 against the newest fighters, such as the American F-22 and F-35, would depend on factors such as numbers of platforms, quality of pilots, and capabilities of radars and other sensors.
美国军事和工业官员认为,一旦J-31投入使用,它将不自觉地与现有的第四代战机如F-15“鹰”式,F-16“战隼”式和F/A-18“超级黄蜂”式相提并论。他们认为J-31对最新的战机如美国F-22和F-35的能力将取决于平台数量,飞行员素质以及雷达和其他传感器的能力等因素。
 
Vladimir Barkovsky of Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (formerly known as the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau) has stated that, despite some design flaws, the J-31 "looks like a good machine." Although it contains features already in use on the U.S. fifth generation fighter designs, it is "not a copy but a well done indigenous design."
俄罗斯米格飞机公司(以前称为Mikoyan-Gurevich设计局)的弗拉基米尔·巴尔科夫斯基(Vladimir Barkovsky)表示,尽管有一些设计缺陷,J-31“看起来像一台很好的机器”。虽然它包含了在美国第五代战斗机设计中已经使用的功能,但它不是一个仿制品,而是一个做得好的本土设计。
 
Specifications (estimated)
规格(估计)
 
Because the aircraft is in development, these specifications — based on available imagery — are approximate and preliminary.
由于飞机正在研制中,这些规格 - 基于现有的图像 - 是近似和初步的。
 
Data from Aviation Week unless otherwise attributed
来自《航空周刊》的数据,除非另有说明
 
General characteristics
一般特性
 
Crew: one (pilot)
Length: 17.3 m (56 ft 9 in) 
Wingspan: 11.5 m (37 ft 9 in)
Height: 4.8 m (15 ft 9 in)
Wing area: 40 m2 (430 sq ft)
Max takeoff weight: 28,000 kg (61,729 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × RD-93 afterburning turbofans, 85 kN (19,000 lbf) thrust each
Powerplant: 2 × WS-13 afterburning turbofans (projected upgrade)
Maximum speed: 2,200 km/h (1,367 mph; 1,188 kn)
Maximum speed: Mach 1.8
Combat range: 1,250 km (777 mi; 675 nmi) on internal fuel, or 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) with external tanks
乘员:一名(飞行员)
机长:17.3米(56英尺9英寸)
翼展:11.5米(37英尺9英寸)
机高:4.8米(15英尺9英寸)
机翼面积:40平方米(430平方英尺)
最大起飞重量:28000公斤(61729磅)
动力装置:2×RD-93加力涡扇发动机,每台推力85千牛(19000磅)
动力装置:2×WS-13加力涡扇发动机(预计升级)
最高速度:2200公里/小时(1367英里/小时;1188英里)
最高速度:1.8马赫
作战距离:1250公里(777英里;675海里)内部燃料,或2000公里(1200英里)外挂油箱 
 
Armament
武器装备
 
Hardpoints: 6 x external, and internal bay with a capacity of Up to 8,000 kilograms (18,000 lb), including 2,000 kilograms (4,400 lb) internally
Missiles:
Air-to-air missiles
12 x medium-range
Air-to-ground missiles:
8 x supersonic[54]
Bombs:
8 × 500 kg deep-penetration bombs[54]
30 x smaller bombs
挂载点:6 x外部,一个内置弹舱,具有达到8000公斤(18000磅)能力,其中包括内置2000公斤(4400磅)
导弹:
空对空导弹:
12 x中距
空对地导弹:
8 x超音速
炸弹:
8 x500公斤深侵彻炸弹
30 x小型炸弹
 
Avionics
航空电子设备
 
Distributed aperture system (DAS) optical early-warning system
Electro-optical targeting system (EOTS)
分布式孔径系统(DAS)光学预警系统
光电瞄准系统(EOTS)

补充资料:《歼-31》来源:百度百科

歼-31(中国编号:J-31,代号:鹘鹰,英译:Gyrfalcon,英文:Shenyang J-31)战斗机,是中国航空工业集团公司沈阳飞机工业集团公司(简称:中航工业沈飞)研制的第四代单座双发隐形战斗机。
 
歼-31是针对国际市场需求研发的多用途战斗机,综合作战效能优异,具有自主知识产权。歼-31采用单座、双发、外倾双垂尾、全动平尾的正常布局,两侧布置大S弯进气道,并有内置弹舱。
 
歼-31飞机具有高生存力:低雷达可探测性、低红外辐射特性、优异的电子对抗性能、低易损性设计;多任务能力:强大的目标探测和外部信息综合能力、优异的态势感知和信息共享能力、超视距多目标攻击和大离轴角全向攻击格斗空战能力、对地和海面目标精确打击能力、适应复杂气象条件和广地域使用能力;优异的综合保障能力;高性价比。

首机试飞
 
2012年10月31日上午10时32分,歼-31成功首飞。中国成为世界第二个同时试飞两种四代机原型机的国家,此前,只有美国同时研制了两种四代战机。
 
2013年1月25日下午4点,歼-31第二次试飞。本次试飞长达40分钟左右。歼-31试飞的频率有所加快。从网路图片资料看,该型机长度在16~17米左右,翼展在10米上下,属于典型的双发中型战斗机,机体整体体积介于F-15和MIG-29之间,机翼面积约40平方米。机头、机身呈菱形,双垂直尾翼向外倾斜,垂尾、主翼、平尾后缘前倾,使用带锯齿的起落架舱,属于隐身设计的战斗机。
 
2.0版试飞

2016年12月23日,网上出现改进型歼-31首飞成功的画面,这架歼-31与之前在珠海航展亮相过的歼-31有较大不同,网友们给起了个“鹘鹰2.0”的称呼 。第二架歼-31原型机改进了空气动力设计以缩减飞机雷达散射截面积,实现更高的隐身性能。改进型机还将装备经过完善的航空电子装备。据提前在2016年12月22日发行的《空军月刊》2017年1月刊中称,同时这架被称为2.0版歼-31战机鼻部的光学雷达站也发生了改变,不仅如此,在驾驶舱的多功能大显示屏上方还将安装一个小显示屏。与第一架原型机相比较,歼-31将配备中国发动机(据推测是涡扇-13A),加大了武器舱,可以很容易的放下六枚带展翼的SD-10A导弹,各项性能比首飞版本提高很大 。
 
歼31改进版本试飞的照片显示,与2014年第10届中国航展亮相的歼-31相比,该机的改进版本在外形上发生了一些变化,不仅改进了空气动力设计,还加大了武器舱。专家认为,歼-31距离定型还需要较长时间。此次试飞的002号机是歼-21的第二架样机,未来不排除歼-31上航母的可能性。
 


网上出现改进型歼-31首飞成功的画面
 
 

新型材料
 
其中,沈阳航空航天大学所提供的增材制造钛合金承力构件在鹘鹰2.0首飞中发挥重大作用,这也标志着增材制造技术水平比肩国内一流,迈入国内第一梯队水平。
 
这次承担钛合金承力构件的部门是沈航航空制造工艺数字化国防重点学科实验室,是东北首家实现增材制造实现装机应用的单位。该实验室负责人介绍,承力构件是鹘鹰2.0飞机机体骨架的重要零部件,该实验室采用3D打印技术制造这种零部件,较传统的“锻铸+机械加工”制造方式比,可节省大型铸锻设备、减少开坯模具,大大缩短研制周期、减少制造成本,未来大规模应用前景广阔。

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      Shenyang J-31  
      中国沈阳J-31型隐形战斗机
          The Shenyang J-31(or "FC-31 fifth Generation Multi-Purpose Medium Fighter") also known as the "Gyrfalcon" (鹘鹰), or "Falcon Hawk" by some military enthusiasts,is a twin-engine, mid-size fifth-generation jet fighter currently under develop... [2017-08-02]
      Jian-10B Multirole Fighter Aircraft  
      中国J-10B多任务战斗机
          The J-10B is a modified variant of the J-10 multirole fighter aircraft, with modifications in airframe and avionics.... [2017-02-18]
      J-8II MULTIROLE FIGHTER AIRCRAFT  
      J-8II多任务战斗机
          The Jian-8II (J-8II, NATO codename: Finback-B) is a single-seat, twin-engine multirole fighter aircraft developed by Shenyang Aircraft Industry Co. (SAC) based on its J-8I fighter.... [2017-02-18]
      J-7E/G INTERCEPTOR FIGHTER AIRCRAFT  
      中国空军J-7E/G截击战斗机
          Chengdu Aircraft Industry Co (CAC) Jian-7E (J-7E) is an updated version of the original J-7 (Chinese copy of the MiG-21 Fishbed) with revised wing design and more modern avionics and weaponry.... [2017-01-07]