DF-26 Anti-ship ballistic missile

中国DF-26型反舰弹道导弹

Date:2016-08-17 Source:wikipedia By:Globalmil Viewed:


The debut of the Dongfeng-26 ballistic missile in the 3 September parade exceeded the expectations of Chinese and foreign media. 
在“9·3”阅兵中亮相的东风-26弹道导弹,出乎中外媒体预料。

The DF-26 is a development of the DF-21 with range increased to 3,000 km (1,900 mi) to 4,000 km (2,500 mi); its existence was confirmed in the mid-2010s but it had already been in service for several years.
DF-26是由DF-21发展而来射程增加到3000公里(1900英里)至4000公里(2500英里);它的存在已在2010年中证实,但它已经服役了好几年。
 
Official commentary elaborated that the DF-26 is “capable of targeting large- and medium-sized targets on water” (打击大中型水面目标). This “Guam Killer” missile is credited with 3,000-4,000-km (1,800-2,500 mile) range, sufficient to strike U.S. bases on Guam. The set of sixteen DF-26 missiles was further described as the “Conventional-/Nuclear-capable formation. The DF-26 can perform medium-to-long-range precision attack on both land and large-to-medium-sized maritime targets. A new weapon for strategic deterrence” (核常兼备导弹方队, 东26能对陆上重要目标和海上大中型舰船实施中远程精确打击, 是我军战略威慑力量体系中的新型武器).
中国官方评论阐述DF-26是“能够针对大中型目标水”(打击大中型水面目标)。这个“关岛杀手”导弹被认为是3000-4000公里(1800-2500英里)的距离内,足以打击美国关岛基地。安排十六枚DF-26导弹将被进一步描述为“常规/核能力的组成。DF-26可以执行对中到远程地面和大中型海上目标精确打击。一种新型战略威慑武器”(核常兼备导弹方队,东26能对陆上重要目标和海上大中型舰船实施中远程精确打击,是我军战略威慑力量体系中的新型武器)。
 
补充资料:(节选自http://www.andrewerickson.com/)
 
王长勤 方光明 [Wang Changqin and Fang Guangming], 军事科学院 [Academy of Military Science], “我们为什么要发展东风-26弹道导弹” [Why We Had to Develop the Dongfeng-26 Ballistic Missile], 中国青年报 [China Youth Daily], 30 November 2015, 9.
 
The debut of the Dongfeng-26 ballistic missile in the 3 September parade exceeded the expectations of Chinese and foreign media. Quite a few concerned figures followed up with the question, having already successfully researched and developed the Dongfeng-21D, which has been dubbed the “carrier killer,” why did China go on to develop the Dongfeng-26?
在“9·3”阅兵中亮相的东风-26弹道导弹,出乎中外媒体预料。不少相关人士追问:在已经研制成功被称为“反航母利器”的东风-21D之后,中国又接着发展东风-26是为啥?
 
Nuclear and Conventional All-In-One, Mobile Launch
核常一体,机动发射
 
In contrast with the DF-21D is the DF-26’s distinct characteristic of being nuclear and conventional all in one; that is, the one missile body can carry a nuclear warhead [singular or plural not indicated] for a nuclear strike against the enemy, or it can carry a conventional warhead [singular or plural not indicated] for a conventional firepower attack against the enemy. That “change the warhead, not the missile” feature provides a rapid switch between nuclear and conventional. For China that is of great strategic importance, because our country follows an active defense policy, its policy is no first use of nuclear weapons and no use of nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear country, it possesses nuclear weapons in no great numbers and for the purpose of self-defensive counterattack, and yet China faces all sorts of security threats.
与东风-21D相比,东风-26的鲜明特点是核常一体,即同一个弹体,既可携带核弹头对敌实施核反击,也可携带常规弹头对敌实施常规火力突击。这种以“不换弹体换弹头”,实现核常快速转换的方式,对于奉行积极防御国防政策,坚持不首先使用核武器、不对无核国家使用核武器“两不”核政策,拥有用以自卫反击、数量不多的核武器,但又面临多种安全威胁的我国而言,极具战略意义。
 
First of all, given that China has only a limited number of nuclear weapons, and as a medium range ballistic missile, by changing to a nuclear warhead at the last minute it [the DF-26] can as needed form up a nuclear deterrent and nuclear counterattack capability linking long and short ranges and strategic and campaign roles.
首先,在我核武数量有限的情况下,它作为中程弹道导弹,通过临战临机换装核弹头,可适需形成远程与中程、战略与战役相衔接的核威慑、核反击能力。
 
Second, given that China follows a path of peaceful development and does not engage in an arms race with powerful enemies, as a conventional ballistic missile, it [the DF-26] can be launched on the move with no support in conventional firepower attacks from within a large scope of the interior of the country against an invading enemy’s fixed targets on land and moving targets at sea. Thus it further upgrades joint land, sea, and air firepower attack capability. In particular, it can, along with forward deployed surface and underwater attack forces and ship-borne, shore-based, and air war forces, execute long, medium, and short-range integrated attacks against large vessels at sea, and integrated, land, sea, and air attacks.
其次,在我坚持和平发展、不与强敌劲敌搞军备竞赛的情况下,它作为常规弹道导弹,可通过无依托机动发射,在内陆较大地域范围内对进犯之敌的陆上固定目标和海上移动目标实施常规火力突击,可进一步提升陆、海、空联合火力打击能力。特别是可与靠前部署的水面水下攻击力量和舰载、岸基、空战力量一道,对敌大型水面舰船实施远、中、近一体打击和陆、海、空一体打击。
 
Compared with silo launched and site launched ballistic missiles, another distinct characteristic of the DF-26 is that it can be launched on the move with no support. Land-based mobile launches in the past, whether with movement by rail or by road, all required a launch site prepared in advance. Although movement over a large area could be accomplished before or during a war, the destination of the move was always a prepared launch site. Because prepared launch sites are limited in number and easily exposed, destruction of a launch site could result in the bad situation of having missiles but not being able to launch them. Also, that sort of missile requires quite a lot of time to set up and get ready in a prepared launch site, which puts it at a great disadvantage against an encroaching enemy with strong mobility and a fast tempo of operation in its “combat chain.”
相较于井式发射和阵地发射的弹道导弹,东风-26的另一鲜明特点是无依托机动发射。过去的陆基机动发射,无论是铁路机动还是公路机动,都要预设发射阵地。虽然战前、战中可实施大区域机动,但机动目的地都是预设的发射阵地。由于预设发射阵地数量受限,容易暴露,一旦被毁,就会造成“有弹无阵地”而难以发射的被动局面。且这类导弹在预设阵地的展开和准备用时较长,对于打击“作战链”运行节奏快、机动性强的进犯之敌不是很有利。
 
But the DF-26 does not rely on a site for mobile launching. It can move fast, and it has no strict demands for where it is launched. So that is helpful to movement of missile forces all over and in concealment, and it is helpful to the rapid deployment, rapid launch, and rapid displacement of combat elements. That means a boost to the missile force’s survivability and to its attack ability. Against time-sensitive targets such as surface ships in particular, it [the DF-26] can attack at the last minute as soon as information on a ship’s movement is acquired, meaning the ship cannot get away.
而东风-26的无依托机动发射,既有高度机动性,又对发射阵地没有严格要求,既有利于导弹力量隐蔽机动、全域机动,又有利于作战单元快速展开、快速发射、快速转移,使导弹力量的生存能力和打击能力得到同步提高。尤其是对水面舰船这类时敏目标,一旦捕捉其机动信息即可临机打击,使其“避而不及”。
 
Using speed to get the upper hand is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which to secure victory in modern integrated joint operations. The DF-26 has numerous “fast” features such as fast switch between nuclear and conventional, fast road movement, fast launch preparation, and fast displacement and withdrawal. Those features suit that mechanism for victory. And because of that, the DF-26 has greater deterrence and real-war power.
以快制慢,是现代一体化联合作战基本制胜机理之一。东风-26所具有的快速核常转换、快速公路机动、快速发射准备、快速转移脱离等诸多“快字当先”性能,适应的正是这一机理。也正是这样,它更有威慑力、实战力。
 
Solid Propulsion, Modular Design
固体推进,模块设计
 
The reason the DF-26 has those “fast” and “flexible mobility” features is due to a lot of new scientific and technological support.
东风-26之所以具备诸多“快字当先”“灵活机动”的性能,是因为它大量采用了能予支撑的新科技。
 
First is solid propulsion. Liquid and solid are the two forms of missile propellant currently in use. The technology for producing and storing liquid propellant is more mature. Liquid propellant is used more for strategic and campaign ballistic missiles. But liquid propellant is very corrosive, and not suitable for keeping in a missile body for a long time. A liquid propellant missile relies on a site for pre-launch fueling, so a liquid propellant missile requires more complicated support and a longer preparation time. Although the industrial technique of processing and producing solid propellant involves strict demands, the resulting product can be preloaded into a missile body. That simplifies launch preparation, and launch can take place in either a hastily prepared site or with no site at all. That means a missile in good technical condition stays combat ready for longer.
第一是固体推进。液体和固体,是现有的两种导弹推进剂。液体推进剂的生产、储备技术较成熟,多用于战略战役弹道导弹。但液体推进剂腐蚀性强,不适宜长期保存于弹体。因而该类导弹需依托相应阵地在发射前加注,这样它的发射保障相对复杂、准备周期相对较长。虽然固体推进剂的加工生产工艺要求高,但成品可预装于弹体,从而简化发射准备,仅依托简易阵地或不依托阵地就可发射,使技术状态完好的导弹具有较长的战备期。
 
Second is modular design. The DF-26 is a new derivative of the Dongfeng series of missiles. Apart from overall optimization of the warhead and carrier, the propulsion system, and the guidance system to meet the demands of modern warfare, emphasis was put on improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, with a modular design of the missile’s structure. Significant is a carrier to which several types of warhead can be fitted, including two types of nuclear warhead and several types of conventional warhead which use different destructive mechanisms to attack specific targets. For example, penetration warheads would be used to damage area type targets such as airfields and ports, piercing and exploding warheads would be used to destroy hardened targets such as bunkers and cave depots, and fuel-air explosive warheads would be used against electromagnetic targets such as command organizations and computer centers. Such a “one carrier, many warheads” design enables the DF-26 to execute long and medium-range precise strikes against many kinds of targets.
第二是模块设计。东风-26是东风系列导弹的新型衍生品。除适应现代战争需要对弹头载体、推进系统、制导系统等进行了整体优化,还着眼提高可靠性、维修性、保障性等,对导弹结构进行了模块化设计。较突出的就是一个运载体可适配多种战斗部。既包括核常两种弹头,也包括以不同毁伤机理打击特定目标的多种常规弹头。如对机场、港口等面状目标进行毁伤的侵彻弹,对掩体、洞库等坚固目标进行毁伤的穿爆弹,对指挥机构、计算中心等电磁目标进行毁伤的云爆弹等。这样的“一体多弹”,使东风-26能对多种目标实施中远程精确打击。
 
Use Offense to Assist Defense, Meet Challenges
以攻助防,应对挑战
 
With the development of anti-identification, anti-interception, and highly integrated technology, the mobility, the ability to penetrate defenses, and the precision of strategic, campaign, and tactical missiles have all improved. By way of technical upgrades and merging into integrated, joint operations networked information systems, the DF-26’s overall tactical and technical performance has continually improved to where it can be considered a prized possession that “uses offense to assist defense, meets challenges.”
随着反识别、反拦截和高集成等技术发展,战略战役战术导弹的机动性、突防性、精确性普遍提高。通过技术升级和融入一体化联合作战网络信息体系,东风-26的综合战技性能不断提高,堪当“以攻助防、应对挑战”的重器。
 
So analysts have pointed out that the range of the DF-26 is twice that of the DF-21D, and the scope of its attack can extend to the second island chain. Some have even given the DF-26 the fanciful name of the “Guam Express” in association with the U.S.concept of “Air-Sea Integrated Battle.” In that regard, it is true that the DF-26 prompts a reasonable expectation of a boost in China’s military capability, but the fundamental goal of China’s research and building of limited offensive weapons including the DF-26 remains to better protect peace and development. The Chinese Government and people are deeply aware that if you want to be fee of worry you must be prepared, and you must be capable of waging war if you hope to prevent war. Without military power commensurate with the pattern of the evolving shape of war, no matter how sincere the cherished aspiration for peace and development, no matter how optimistic you are about the course of peace and development, it is extremely likely that those hopes will be cruelly dashed because you cannot stop war.
于是就有分析指出,东风-26的射程是东风-21D的两倍,其打击范围可以延伸到第二岛链,甚至联想到美“空海一体战”构想,给东风-26封了“关岛速递”这一极富想象的别称。这其中,固然有对中国军事能力提升的合理期盼,但中国研制包括东风-26在内的有限进攻性武器,其根本目的还是为了更好地守护和平与发展。因为中国政府和人民深知,“有备”才能“无患”、“能战”方能“止战”。没有符合战争形态演进规律的军事能力,再真诚的和平与发展心愿,再令人看好的和平与发展进程,都极有可能因为不能“止战”而被残酷中断。
 
But “spear” and “shield,” “offense” and “defense,” inevitably have a process that is antithetical, evolving, and iconoclastic. As with any other weapon, the DF-26’s technical features dictate that it will have its limitations in operational use. For example, it cannot be reused after delivering a warhead, its one-time use is expensive, and it can only be used against high value targets; carrier, propulsion, guidance, and warhead are integrated, the cost of building a single item is high, and the total number that can be kept is limited; operating the combat chain of reconnaissance, control, attack, and evaluation relies on other forces to provide information on targets to attack and the effect of those attacks, and the degree of completeness of the combat operations system and the degree of merging of launch elements greatly affect the effectiveness of an attack. Despite that, some elements of the foreign media spread “China threat theory” asserting that the DF-26 “changes the rules of the game in warfare.” Although that is a natural expression of a desire to poke at a sore spot while fearing to stab deep, even more so it is a case of “flogging with a stick” not working and instead attempting to “destroy by heaping excessive praise.”
但“矛”与“盾”、“攻”与“防”总有对立、演变与突破的过程。同任何其他武器一样,东风-26的技术特质决定其在作战使用上也有局限性。比如,不能载弹投弹重复使用,单次使用成本高,打击对象多限于高价值目标;运载、推进、制导、弹头等集成一体,单装造价高,总保有量受限;运行侦、控、打、评“作战链”有赖其他力量提供打击目标和打击效果信息,作战体系的完备度、发射单元的融入度等对打击效果影响较大。尽管如此,一些外国媒体还是以其“改变战争游戏规则”为佐证宣传“中国威胁论”。这其中,虽含“戳到痛处”怕“深扎”的自然表达,但更有“棒杀”不成则“捧杀”的企图。

    Pre:DF-21D (CSS-5 Mod-4) Anti-ship ballistic missile   Next:No more

      DF-26 Anti-ship ballistic missile  
      中国DF-26型反舰弹道导弹
          The DF-26 is a development of the DF-21 with range increased to 3,000 km (1,900 mi) to 4,000 km (2,500 mi); its existence was confirmed in the mid-2010s but it had already been in service for several years.... [2016-08-17]
      DF-21D (CSS-5 Mod-4) Anti-ship ballistic missile  
      中国DF-21D型(CSS-5 MOD-4)反舰弹道导弹
          The emergence of the DF-21D has some analysts claiming that the "carrier killer" missiles have rendered the American use of aircraft carriers obsolete, as they are too vulnerable in the face of the new weapon and not worth the expense.... [2016-08-17]