PLL01 155MM TOWED GUN-HOWITZER

中国PLL01式155毫米牵引-榴弹炮

Date:2017-01-16 Source:Internet By:Globalmil Viewed:


The PLL01 (W89) is the most advanced towed artillery weapon system in service with the PLA. It is the first PLA artillery weapon that adopts NATO-standard calibre.
PLL01(W89)是在PLA服役中最先进的牵引火炮武器系统。它采用北约组织-标准口径的第一种PLA火炮武器。

The PLL01 (also known as W88/890 is a 155mm gun-howitzer introduced by China North Industries Corporation Ltd (NORINCO) in 1987. It was the first artillery gun system in service with the PLA that adopts the NATO standard calibre. The Type 89’s 155mm 45-calibre gun is based on the Austrian GHN-45 design. The same gun design is also used by the PLZ45 self-propelled gun-howitzer system. A small number of the PLL01 has been fielded by the PLA since the early 1990s.
中国PLL01式(也即是W88/89式)是一种155毫米榴弹炮,在1987年由中国北方工业公司公司(NORINCO)生产。它是PLA服役中的第一种采用北约组织标准口径的火炮系统。89式155毫米45倍口径火炮以奥地利的GHN-45设计为基础。相同的火炮设计也被PLZ45自行榴弹炮系统采用。少量的PLL01自从1990年以后进入PLA服役。

PROGRAMME
计划

The NORINCO PLL01 (W88/89) gun-howitzer was based on the design and technology of the Austrian GHN-45, which itself was derived from the Canadian GC-45 howitzer designed by Dr Gerald Bull’s Space Research Corporation in the 1970s. The GC-45 combines a number of features to produce what is generally considered the best field artillery in the world. Its unique 155mm/45-calibre gun design has been adopted by a number of artillery systems around the world, including the famous South African G5 howitzer.
中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)PLL01式(W88/89)榴弹炮基于奥地利GHN-45式的设计和技术,它本身起源于1970年加拿大Dr Gerald Bull空间研究公司设计的GC-45型榴弹炮。GC-45结合许多的特色去生产被广泛认为是世界上最好的野战火炮。它的独特155毫米/45倍口径设计已经被世界上许多的火炮系统采用,包括有名的南非G5榴弹炮。



PLL01/W88/89式以奥地利的GHN-45型的设计和技术为基础,它本身起源于1970年加拿大Dr Gerald Bull空间研究公司设计的GC-45型榴弹炮。GC-45结合许多的特色去生产被广泛认为是世界上最好的野战火炮。

China obtained the Austrian GHN-45 howitzer technology in the 1980s when its ally with the Western countries was still in the honeymoon period. This technology was used by NORINCO to develop its own version of the 155mm/45-calibre howitzer known as Type 88 (or W88). The howitzer was promoted to the export market under the designation WA021. Later the howitzer was adopted by the PLA using designation PLL01. It is sometimes also referred to as the Type 89 (W89). The PLL01 is the first PLA artillery weapon that adopts NATO-standard calibre.
中国在1980年,当它与西方国家保持在蜜月期的时候获得了奥地利的GHN-45榴弹炮技术。这一种技术被中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)用于发展它自己的155毫米/45倍口径型号的榴弹炮,即是88式(或W88式)。榴弹炮被推销到出口市场,称为WA021型。稍后榴弹炮被PLA采用指定为PLL01式。它有时称为89式(W89)。PLL01是采用北约组织-标准口径的第一种PLA火炮武器。


被设计用于出口市场的GM-45式是安装在二轮车辆上59-I式130毫米野炮。

The PLL01 matches the firepower of the PLA’s existing 17km-range 152mm Type 66 gun-howitzer, but with much extended firing range. By introducing the extended-range full-bore (ERFB) and extended-range full-bore base bleed (ERFB-BB) projectiles, the artillery can reach maximum range of 30km and 39km respectively. This represents a significant improvement in the PLA’s long-range artillery firepower. A small number (54 howitzers) has been fielded by the PLA since the 1990s for trial and evaluation. It is not clear whether the PLA is interested in replacing all of its existing 152mm gun-howitzers.
PLL01可匹配PLA现有的射程17公里152毫米66式榴弹炮的火力,但是具有更远的增程火力射程。引进远程全膛弹(ERFB)和远程全膛底排弹(ERFB-BB),火炮能分别达到30公里和39公里的最大射程。这表现PLA的远程火炮力量的重要进步。一些少量(54门榴弹炮)的火炮已经从1990年以后用于试验和评估进入PLA服役。不清楚是否PLA对更换所有已有的152毫米榴弹炮感兴趣。

VARIANTS
改型

NORINCO also introduced the lightweight GM-45 155mm gun-howitzer, which is fitted on the two-wheel carriage of the Type 59-I 130mm field gun. By using the carriage of an existing artillery system, the GM-45 can reduce its combat weight and lower the unit cost. However, the lighter carriage of the GM-45 also results in less stable platform when firing, causing lower fire accuracy. The GM-45 was tailored for the export market in some third-world countries, but has received no order.
中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)推出轻型GM-45 155毫米榴弹炮,是在二轮支架上安装的59-I式130毫米野炮。使用现有火炮系统的支架,GM-45能减少它的战斗重量和降低单位成本。然而,GM-45的较轻支架也造成在射击时不足的稳定平台,引起较低的射击精度。GM-45式适合一些第三世界国家的出口市场,但是没有收到订购。

Later in 2001 NORINCO also introduced a truck-mounted variant of the 155mm gun-howitzer system. The design did not enter production with only a technical demonstrate sample has been produced.
稍后在2001年中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)也推出了一种卡车安装型155毫米榴弹炮系统。设计没有进入生产,仅仅是技术上的示范样式。


中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)介绍的最新型安装在6X6卡车上。

OPERATIONAL STATUS
操作状态

The first PLA unit to be equipped with the PLL01 is an independent artillery division in Beijing Military Region. A total of 54 howitzers are grouped into an artillery regiment (three artillery battalions). During the military parade to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China held in Beijing on 1 October 1999, this division demonstrated the howitzer to the public.
第一个装备PLL01的PLA单位是北京军区的一个独立炮兵师,总数为54门榴弹炮进入一个炮兵团之内(三个炮兵营)。在1999年10月1日中国北京举行的庆祝国庆第50周年阅兵式上,这一个师的榴弹炮向公众展示。


国内使用型PLL01在1999年北京举行的国庆阅兵式期间对公众首次展示。

DESIGN
设计

The PLL01 is constructed using alloy steel. The howitzer is armed with a 155mm/45-calibre barrel. The muzzle velocity (using ERFB-BB projectile) is 903m/s. The PLL01 is able to deliver up to 4 rounds per minute under intense firing conditions and is able to provide a sustained rate of fire of 2 rounds per minute. The howitzer is capable of both direct (line of sight) and indirect (out of the line of sight) firing.
PLL01制造使用合金钢。榴弹炮安装使用155毫米/45倍口径的炮管。炮口速度(使用远程全膛弹(ERFB)-BB 射弹)是903米/秒。PLL01能够在速射条件下每分钟4发和能够提供每分钟2发的持续射。榴弹炮能够直接(瞄准线)和间接(非瞄准线)射击。

The howitzer has a minimum range of 5,400m, and a maximum range of 30km using the Extended Range Full Bore (ERFB-BB) projectile, or 39km using the Extended Range Full Bore Base Bleed (ERFB-BB) projectile.
榴弹炮最小射程5,400米,使用远程全膛弹(ERFB)射弹最大射程30公里,使用远程全膛底排弹(ERFB-BB)射弹39公里。


榴弹炮最小射程5,400米,引进增程全膛弹(ERFB)和远程全膛底排弹(ERFB-BB),火炮能分别达到30公里和39公里的最大射程。

PLL01 operation of the load assist systems
PLL01负载辅助系统的操作

The PLL01 is fitted with a hydraulic power pack for operation of the load assist systems, for aiming and for opening/closing the carriage. When in travelling mode, the howitzer barrel is folded back 180 degree to reduce the total length of the howizter from 13m to 9m.
安装使用一套液压动力装置用于装填辅助系统操作,瞄准和打开/闭合支架。当在行进模式,榴弹炮管折叠向后180度,减少榴弹炮的总长度从13米到9米。


W88式在行进模式。炮管被折叠向后180度,减少火炮的总长度从13米到9米。

MUNITIONS
弹药

The Type 89/PLL01 fires a range of projectiles, including the Extended-Range Full-Bore High Explosive (ERFB/HE), Extended-Range Full-Bore Base Bleed High Explosive (ERFB-BB/HE), ERFB-BB/RA, ERFB/WP, ERFB/Illuminating, ERFB/Smoke, and ERFB-BB/Cargo.
89/PLL01式发射多种射弹,包括远程全膛高爆弹(ERFB/HE)、远程全膛弹底排高爆弹(ERFB-BB/HE)、ERFB-BB/RA、ERFB/白磷弹(WP)、ERFB/照明弹(Illuminating)、ERFB/发烟弹(Smoke)和ERFB-BB/子母弹(Cargo)。

China obtained the Russian Krasnopol laser-guided projectile technology in the 1990s, and has successfully developed its own 152/155mm laser-guided ammunitions. Designed to defeat armoured vehicles and weapon emplacements, the projectile has inertial mid-course guidance and semi-active laser homing. The projectile has a range of 3~20km, and can hit a target by the first shot without registration.
中国在1990年获得了俄国Krasnopol激光制导发射技术,而且已经成功地发展它自己的152/155毫米激光制导弹药。设计去打击装甲车辆和武器炮位,射弹采用惯性中段引导和半主动激光寻的。射弹的射程3~20公里,能击中一个未经瞄准的目标。

FIRE CONTROL
火控

The PLL01 employs an optical sighting system for direct and indirect firing by day or night. The howitzer control can be connected to the artillery company/battalion command centre for automated firing. 
PLL01采用光学瞄准系统用于直接间接在昼或夜射击。 榴弹炮控制能被连接到火炮连/营指挥中心用于自动射击。

MOBILITY
机动性

The PLL01 has a combat weight of 12,000kg (with APU) and 9,800kg (without APU). The howitzer can be towed by an air-braked 6X6 truck. The carriage has 4 large wheels and 2 small support wheels and is fitted with hydrostrut suspension system. The maximum road speed is 90km/h.
PLL01式战斗重量12,000公斤(使用APU)和9,800公斤(不使用APU)。榴弹炮能被一辆风冷6X6卡车牵引。车辆有4个大车轮和2个小支撑轮和安装有液压悬挂系统。最大道路速度90公里/小时。


W88式榴弹炮原型安装使用一套辅助动力单位(APU)用于短距离行进。榴弹炮在1985年发展,而且初始生产在1987年开始。

NORINCO developed an auxiliary power unit (APU), which can be fitted on the PLL01 and W88 gun-howitzer system to provide limited self-propel capability. The 77hp APU can support the howitzer to travel up to 80km at a speed of 18km/h. When towed by trucks, the APU could also help the howitzer in cross-country travelling.
中国北方工业总公司(NORINCO)发展了一套辅助动力单位(APU),能安装在PLL01式和W88式榴弹炮系统上去提供有限的自行能力。77马力APU能支持榴弹炮以18公里的速度行进达到80公里/小时。当被卡车牵引的时候,APU也可以帮助榴弹炮越野行进。

SPECIFICATIONS 
规格

Crew: 5
Combat weight: 12t (with APU), 9.8t (without APU) 
Dimension (travelling mode): (Length) 9,068m; (width) 2,670m; (height) 2,230
Fire-Supression System: Yes
Calibre: 155mm
Barrel Length: 7,046mm (45 calibre)
Barrel Life: 2,500 firings
Maximum Firing Range: (High Explosive or HE): 24km; (Extended Range Full Bore, or ERFB) 30km; (Extended Range Full Bore, Hollow Base, Base Bleed, or ERFB-HB-BB) 39km
Rate of Fire: intense 4 rounds/min; sustained 2 rounds/min
Loading system: semi-automatic
Fire Control: Direct or indirect firing with electro-optical sighting system for day/night operations 

组员: 5
战斗重量: 12 吨(使用APU),9.8 吨(不使用APU)
尺寸(行进模式): (长度)9,068 米;(宽度)2,670 米;(高度)2,230米
射击-支援系统: 有
口径: 155 毫米
炮管长度: 7,046 毫米(45倍口径)
炮管寿命: 2,500次射击
最大射程: (高爆)24 公里;(远程全膛弹,ERFB)30 公里;(远程全膛弹、空心、底排弹,ERFB-HB-BB)39 公里
射速: 速射 4发/分钟;持续 2发/分钟
装填系统: 半自动
火控: 直接或非直接射击,使用光电瞄准系统用于昼/夜操作

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