Hunter

以色列“猎人”(Hunter)无人机

Date:2013-10-26 Source:israeli-weapons By:globalmil Viewed:

Hunter is a joint tactical unmanned aerial system in service with the US Army. In 1989, the US Army, Navy and Marines initiated a joint unmanned aerial vehicle programme. TRW and Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI) Malat Division won a low rate initial production (LRIP) contract in 1993 to supply seven Hunter systems. The systems entered service in 1996. Hunter has also been sold to France and Belgium.

“猎人”(Hunter)是一种在美国陆军服役的联合战术无人机系统。在1989年,美国陆军、海军和海军陆战队开始了一项联合无人机(UAV)计划。TRW公司和以色列飞机工业公司(IAI)马拉特(Malat)分部在1993年嬴得一份低速率初始化生产(LRIP)合同,供给七套“猎人”(Hunter)系统。系统在1996年进入了服役。“猎人”(Hunter)也已经出售到法国和比利时。

The Hunter system is capable of carrying out the following missions: real time imagery intelligence, artillery adjustment, battle damage assessment, reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition and battlefield observation.

“猎人”(Hunter)系统能够执行下列各项任务:实时图像情报、火炮校正、战争损害评估、侦察和监视、目标捕获和战场观测。

Since 1999, Hunters have been deployed in Macedonia, in support of NATO forces in Kosovo. In the first three months of Operation Allied Force, Hunters flew over 600 flight hours per 30 day period, providing imagery and real-time data. The Hunters operated in relay with two air vehicles airborne simultaneously for each mission.

自从1999年以后,北约军队在科索沃省的支援中,“猎人”(Hunter)已经在马其顿部署。在最初三个月的联盟力量军事行动中,“猎人”(Hunter)每30天周期飞行超过了600个飞行小时,提供图像和实时数据。“猎人”(Hunter)中继操作使用二架无人机同时地用于各自任务。

An Extended Hunter, a larger version of Hunter, has been developed for longer endurance and higher (up to 20,000ft) altitude tactical missions.

一种增程“猎人”(Hunter)无人机,“猎人”(Hunter)的一种较大型,用于较长续航力和较高高度(达到20,000英尺)战术任务已经被发展。

In October 2002, a series of flight tests demonstrated Hunter's ability to carry and deploy the Northrop Grumman BAT (Brilliant AntiTank) submunition. The BAT submunitions destroyed a BMP combat vehicle and incapacitated a moving T-72 tank.

在2002年10月,一系列的飞行测试示范了“猎人”(Hunter)的能力携带并且配置诺斯罗普·格鲁门公司BAT(Brilliant反坦克)子弹药。BAT子弹药摧毁了一辆BMP战车和使一辆行进中的T-72坦克丧失能力。

Hunter RQ-5A Air Vehicle

The Hunter air vehicle is a fixed wing, twin tail boom aircraft with a dual rudder. It is propelled by two Moto-Guzzi petrol engines, each developing 60hp. It is equipped with a global positioning system navigation system. 

The air vehicle can be launched from a paved or semi-paved runway or it can use a rocket assisted take off (RATO) system, where it is launched from a zero-length launcher using a rocket booster. The RATO launch is useful on board small ships and in areas where space is limited. The air vehicle can land on a regular runway, grassy strip or highway using arresting cables.

The B-Hunter, produced by IAI for Belgium, has an automatic landing and take-off (ATLND) system. The ATLND is based on a laser tracker sensor that is used to automatically guide the air vehicle to a flare point. The US Hunter has begun flight testing to incorporate the existing UAV Common Automatic Recovery System (UCARS), built by Sierra Nevada Corporation, that the US Government has developed for the Navy Pioneer UAV.

“猎人”(Hunter)RQ-5A无人机

“猎人”(Hunter)无人机是一种固定翼、双尾桁飞行器采用双方向舵。它由二台摩托固斯(Moto Guzzi)汽油发动机推进,每台60马力。它装备一套全球定位导航系统。
  
飞行器能从一条铺设或半铺设跑道发射,或它能使用一套火箭辅助起飞(RATO)系统,从一个零长度发射装置使用火箭助推器发射。RATO发射用在小艇甲板和在空间被限制的区域中。飞机能在一条常规跑道上降落,绿化带或公路使用拦阻索降落。

B-“猎人”(Hunter)型,以色列飞机工业公司(IAI)为比利时生产,有一套自动降落和起飞(ATLND)系统。ATLND以一套激光跟踪传感器为基础,使用去自动引导飞行器到一个闪光点。美国“猎人”(Hunter)已经开始飞行试验去整合已存在的无人机通用自动回收系统(UCARS),由Sierra Nevada公司制造,美国政府为海军先锋无人机(UAV)发展。

Mission Payloads

The primary payload is the Multi-Mission Optronic Payload (MOSP), developed by IAI Tamam, which includes television and forward looking infrared (FLIR) to provide day/night surveillance capability. US Army Hunter's operating in Macedonia are being fitted with new sensor's including a third-generation FLIR and a spotter for the day TV camera.

Hunter is capable of carrying other advanced mission payloads and has been used as a payload demonstration platform. Payloads have included a laser designator and various communications systems. A communications relay payload extends VHF/UHF communications beyond line of sight. Electronic countermeasures payloads have included communications warning receiver, communications jammer and radar jammer supplied by Northrop Grumman.

任务负载

主要负载是多任务光电负载(MOSP),由以色列飞机工业公司(IAI)Tamam分公司发展,包括电视和前视红外仪(FLIR)提供昼/夜监视能力。在马其顿操作的美国陆军“猎人”(Hunter)无人机装备有一套新的传感器,包括一套第三代FLIR和一套用于昼间电视照相机的定 位 器。

“猎人”(Hunter)能够携带其它先进任务负载而且已经被当作一个负载示范平台使用。负载包括一套激光指示器和各种不同的通信系统。一套通信中继负载扩展超视距特高频/ 超高频通信。电子干扰负载已经包括通信警告接收机、通信干扰机和由诺斯罗普·格鲁门(Northrop Grumman)供给的雷达干扰机。

GCS-3000 Ground Control Station

The GCS-3000 Ground Control Station, manned by two operators, tracks, commands, controls and communicates with the air vehicle and its payload. One ground control station can control one air vehicle or two air vehicles in relay. An enhanced mission planner provides flexible automated tactical mission planning and access to digital terrain elevation data (DTED), CD ROM map data and data from the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA).

The GCS has three control bays and an optional intelligence bay. The Pilot Control Bay controls the flight of the air vehicle. An Observer Control Bay is controls the payload functions. The navigation control bay is equipped with a digital map display which traces the flight path and monitors the progress of the mission. The intelligence bay provides data processing and distribution capabilities. 

The communications uplink channels (UPL-1 and UPL-2) and the downlink channel (DNL) use fixed coded frame format. An optional spread spectrum modem on the main uplink channel provides anti-jam capability.

IAI Malat has developed a Compact Ground Control System, CGCS, which can be adapted for airborne, small ship and forward tactical deployment. 

GCS-3000地面控制站

GCS-3000地面控制站,由二名操作员人管理,跟踪、指令、控制,使用飞行器和它的负载通信。一个地面控制站能控制一架飞行器或在中继模式中的二架飞行器。一个可提高的任务计划提供灵活的自动化战术任务计划和有权使用来自国防测绘局(DMA)的数字地形高度数据(DTED)、CD ROM地图数据和数据。

GCS有三个控制隔间和一个可选择的情报隔间。驾驶员控制隔间控制飞行器的飞行。一个观察员控制隔间控制负载功能。导航控制隔间装备一个数字地图显示器跟踪飞行路径和监控进行中的任务。情报隔间提供数据处理和分布能力。 

通信上行链路通道(UPL-1和UPL-2)和下行链路通道(DNL)使用固定编码帧格式。一台可选择扩展频谱调制解调器在主上行链路通道上提供反干扰能力。

以色列飞机工业公司(IAI)马拉特(Malat)已经发展一个轻巧的地面控制系统,CGCS,能够适用于机载、小艇和前方战术部署。

Remote Video Terminal

A Remote Video Terminal is used at tactical operations centres to receive and display real-time video and telemetry from the airborne vehicle. The RVT is connected to a directional antenna to receive signals from the air vehicle flying up to a range of 40km from the terminal. The RVT can alternatively be connected directly to the Ground Control Station.

遥控视频终端

一部遥控视频终端(RVT)在战术操作中心被用于接收和显示来自空中飞行器的实时视频和遥测。RVT连接到一个定向天线接受来自飞行器的信号,飞行距终端一直达40公里。RVT能做为选择直接连接到地面控制站。

 

“猎人”(Hunter)
 
翼展(Wing span) 
8.8 m
长度(Length) 
6.8 m
重量(Height) 
1.7 m
最大起飞重量(Maximum take-off weight) 
727 kg 
最大负载(Maximum payload) 
125 kg 
最大燃料(Maximum fuel) 
136 kg 
实用升限(Service ceiling) 
15,000 英尺(feet) 
操作速度(Operational speed) 
110 节(knots) 
最大航程,没有中继(Maximum range, no relay) 
125 km 
最大航程使用中继(Maximum range with relay) 
200 km 
最大续航力(Maximum endurance) 
12 小时(hours)
Extended Hunter
 
翼展(Wing span) 
16.6 m
长度(Length) 
7.5 m
高度(Height) 
2.3 m
最大起飞重量(Maximum take-off weight) 
954 kg 
最大负载(Maximum payload) 
148 kg 
最大燃料率(Maximum fuel rate) 
258 kg 
实用升限(Service ceiling) 
20,000 英尺(feet) 
操作速度(Operational speed) 
110 节(knots) 
最大航程,没有中继(Maximum range, no relay) 
125 km 
最大航程使用中继(Maximum range with relay) 
200 km 
最大续航力(Maximum endurance) 
36 小时(hours)

Hunter in Yugoslavia

Reports from NATO on 6 April 1999 indicated that approximately eight Hunter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) left Ft. Hood in Texas for Europe. 

Within 48 hours further NATO reports indicated that a Hunter had gone down over Kosovo and was presumed to have been shot down. However, NATO officials said evidence of this was not conclusive. US Defence officials, who wished to remain anonymous, added that the precise cause of the loss is under review.

“猎人”(Hunter)在南斯拉夫

来自北约组织的报告在1999年4月6日称大约八架“猎人”(Hunter)无人机(UAV)离开美国德克萨斯州Ft. Hood到欧洲。 

进一步的在48个小时内北约组织报告表明一架“猎人”(Hunter)已经在科索沃省上空坠落并且已被假定被击落。然而,北约组织官员说对于这个证据不是确定的。美国匿名防卫官员称,更多准确损失原因在检查过程中。

 

B-Hunter UAV Wins Belgium Competition

December 15, 1998

Ben-Gurion International Airport, Israel - The Belgium Government announced December 10, 1998 its decision to buy three Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Systems. The contract has been awarded to the "Eagle" alliance, a temporary association consisting of Alcatel Etca S.A., Alcatel Bell Space & Defense N.V., SAIT Systems S.A., Sonaca S.A. and Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) MALAT Division. This alliance was established to provide the most capable industrial team to meet the Belgium Army's UAV mission requirements. 

The selected system is a version, with upgraded capabilities, of the Hunter UAV system developed by IAI/MALAT, and is based on the seven Hunter UAV systems/62 air vehicles purchased by the U.S. Army, and a Hunter system that was purchased by the French Army. 

The principal upgraded capabilities of the B-Hunter are full automatic takeoff and landing, advanced ground control station and advanced avionics. These advancements were based on lessons learned from the U.S. Army's successful operation of their Hunter UAV systems and are applicable to the U.S. Army's Hunter fleet. 

The announcement by the Belgium Government ends a period of stringent, comparative evaluation and rigorous testing of a number of candidate UAV systems. A highly qualified Belgium team who had more than 20 years of Belgium operational experience with UAV systems conducted the assessment. The final contenders were the French Sagem "Sperwer" UAV, the Swiss Oerlikon-Contraves "Ranger" system and IAI's Hunter UAV system, as proposed by the "Eagle" alliance. 

Sharing Malat's extensive UAV experience with its partners, the work on the new B-Hunter system will be conducted in both Belgium and Israel. The first system, to be used for validation purposes, will be delivered by the year 2000.  

B-“猎人”(Hunter)无人机(UAV)赢得比利时竞争

1998年12月15日,以色列本-古里安(BEN-GURION)国际机场,比利时政府1998年12月10日决定购买三套无人机(UAV)系统。合同已经颁发给“鹰”(Eagle)同盟,一个临时性的联合由Alcatel Etca S.A.、Alcatel 贝尔(Bell)空间&防御N.V.、SAIT系统S.A.、Sonaca S.A.和以色列飞机工业(以色列飞机工业公司(IAI))马拉特(Malat)分公司所组成。这一个同盟建立提供最有能力的工业团队符合比利时陆军无人机(UAV)任务需求。 

经挑选系统是一种型号,具有升级能力,由以色列飞机工业公司(IAI)/马拉特(Malat)发展,而且以美国陆军购买的七套“猎人”(Hunter)无人机(UAV)系统/62套发行器为基础,并且一套“猎人”(Hunter)系统被法国陆军购买。

B-“猎人”(Hunter)升级的主要能力是全自动起飞和降落,先进的地面管制站和先进的航空电子系统。这些进步来自美国陆军成功的操作他们的“猎人”(Hunter)无人机(UAV)系统了解到的经验,而且可以应用到美国陆军“猎人”(Hunter)机群。 

比利时政府经一个周期严格,对比评估和严格测试许多的候选无人机(UAV)系统后宣布结果。比利时一个非常有资格,无人机(UAV)系统操作经验超过20年的小组实施评估。最后的竞争者是法国萨基姆(Sagem)“Sperwer”无人机(UAV)、瑞士Oerlikon-Contraves“守林人”系统和以色列飞机工业公司(IAI)的“猎人”(Hunter)无人机(UAV)系统,“猎人”被看作“鹰”同盟提出。

它的合伙人共享马拉特(Malat)广泛的无人机(UAV)经验,在新的B-“猎人”(Hunter)系统上的工作将会在比利时和以色列进行。第一套系统,用于验证用途,将会在2000年以前交付。

Hunter UAV System Features

Multi-role short-range UAV system with combi electro-optical payloads 
Full automatic take-off and landing 
Take-off and landing from unprepared terrain 
Improved avionics & datalink 
New advanced ground control station 
High level of airworthiness 
Emergency parachute 
Twin engine configuration 
NATO standard compatible 
Meets European environmental requirements 
Integrated logistic support 

“猎人”(Hunter)无人机(UAV)系统特点

多任务短航程无人机系统使用整合光电负载
全自动起飞和降落
从无准备的地带起飞和降落
改良的航空电子系统和数据链
新的先进地面控制站
高水平续航力
紧急状况降落伞
双发动机结构
兼容北约标准
符合欧洲的环境要求
综合后勤支援

B-Hunter UAV System Major Characteristics

Endurance more then 10 hrs 
Range more then 100 km 
Altitude Up to 15,000 ft 
Max. Speed 110 knot 
Powerplant Twin engines, 4 stroke 2 cylinder 64 hp each 
Max. Take-off Weight 727 kg 
Overall Length 6.90 m 
Wing Span 8.90 m

B- “猎人”(Hunter)无人机(UAV)系统主要特点

续航力更多超过10 小时
航程更多超过 100公里
达到 15,000英尺的高度
最大速度 110节
动力装置 双发动机,每台4冲程 2气缸 64马力
最大起飞重量 727 公斤
全长 6.90 米
翼展 8.90 米

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