The Type 90-II is China’s first main battle tank with heavy Western influence. The tank is fitted with a Western-designed powerpack and a Chinese 125mm main gun.
The Type 90-II was developed by China North Industries Group Corporation (NORINCO) in the 1980s as a candidate for the PLA’s third-generation main battle tank (MBT) programme. Later the more capable Type 98 MBT was chosen by the PLA for production, but the Type 90-II programme continued as an export product. In the late 1990s the improved Type 90-II was marketed as MBT2000 to foreign customers. The tank is built by Pakistan under license as the Al-Khalid.
90-2式在1980年被当做一种候选型用于PLA第三-代主战坦克（MBT）计划，中国北方工业总公司（NORINCO） 发展。稍后更有能力的98式主战坦克（MBT）被PLA选择投入生产，但是90-2式计划继续被当做一种出口产品。 在1990年后期改进的90-2式在市场上被称为MBT2000给国外客户。坦克在许可下由巴基斯坦制造被称为Al-Khalid型。
The PLA leaders concluded in the late 1970s that its existing armoured force was not sufficient to defend the country against a potential large-scale invasion by the Soviet Union. The PLA was particularly concerned that its obsolete Type 59 and Type 69 tanks were no match to the Soviet T-72 MBT. The PLA therefore decided to develop a new-generation MBT, using knowledge gained from studying the T-72 samples it obtained from a third-party, as well as assistance of Western tank technologies. The initial design concept was to develop an indigenous tank copying the T-72 chassis, but with a new welded turret design and Western powerpack.
PLA领导层在1970年后期中得出结论，已有的装甲力量不足以防御国家去对抗一个潜在的苏联大规模入侵。 PLA特别地关心它的陈旧的59式和69式坦克不能够与苏联T-72主战坦克（MBT）匹敌。PLA因此决定发展一种新一代主战坦克（MBT），利用从第三国获得的T-72样品 试样获得的资料和西方坦克技术协助。最初的设计概念要发展一种本国自行生产的坦克仿造T-72底盘，但是采用新的焊接炮塔设计和西方动力装置。
The Type 90-IIM prototype developed by Beijing-based 201 Institute (now China North Vehicle Research Institute) and Inner Mongolia-based 617 Factory (now Inner-Mongolia First Machinery Group Corporation).
The Beijing-based 201 Institute (now China North Vehicle Research Institute) and Inner Mongolia-based 617 Factory (now Inner-Mongolia First Machinery Group Corporation) introduced the initial prototype known as Type 90-II in 1990. The tank features a Chinese designed chassis developed from the T-72, a welded turret, and a Chinese 125mm main gun fitted with the Russian 2A46’s autoloader. However, this design did not meet the PLA’s performance expectations, and a major effort was initiated to improve its travelling performance. As a result, a new version featuring a re-designed chassis which is a more close resemblance of the T-72 was introduced in 1993. This variant later led to the Type 98 MBT, which was finally chosen by the PLA for production.
北京-建立的201所(现在中国北方车辆研究所)和内蒙古-建立的617厂(现在内蒙古第一机械集团公司) 在1990 年推出最初的原型即是90-2式。坦克的特点，一个中国从T-72上开发设计的底盘，一个焊接炮塔，一个中国设计的125毫米主炮安装俄国2A46自动装弹机。然而，这一个设计不符合PLA期待的性能，因此一个主要的努力开始去改良它的行进性能。结果，一种新的型号特点是采用一个重新设计的底盘，更接近类似T-72在1993年推出。这一种改型稍后产生98式主战坦克（MBT），最后用于生产被PLA选择了。
The Type 90-II prototype first revealed in 1992. The tank design failed to meet the PLA requirements.
The original Type 90-II project continued as an export programme. To overcome its inadequate travelling performance, the design team modified the tank to have the option to be fitted with foreign-made powerpack. The revised tank design known as Type 90-IIM was finally certified in 2000. During the 2001 Abu Dhabi Defence Exhibition, the tank was first revealed by NORINCO under its export name MBT2000. From November 2000, the tank has been produced in Pakistan as the Al-Khalid MBT. This version is powered by the Ukrainian-made 1,200hp 6TD diesel engine.
The MBT2000 main battle tank is an improved variant of the Type 90-II initially introduced in the early 1990s. The tank was originally developed for the PLA as a candidate for its third-generation main battle tank programme, but later became an export project.
最初原型采用一台1,200马力发动机（Perkins CV12-1200）和数字式火控系统。-The original prototype with a 1,200hp engine (Perkins CV12-1200) and digital fire control system
为巴基斯坦设计采用法国1,500马力柴油V系列发动机，但是因为美国-印第压力原因没有交付，法国加入禁止巴基斯坦核武器测试。-Intended for Pakistan with the French 1,500hp diesel V series engine, but not delivered because of US-Indian pressure caused France to join embargo of Pakistan for its nuke testing
替换90-IIA式，采用1,200马力乌克兰6TD发动机去制造Al- Khalid许可生产坦克。-Replacement for Type 90-IIA, 1,200hp Ukrainian 6TD engine used to create Al-Khalid license production tank
The Type 90-II is not a totally new design with around 45% of its components coming from current designs. This can be broken down as follows: 10% from the Type 59, 15% from the Type 69, and 20% from the Type 85/88C; the remaining 55% being new components.
The layout of the Type 90-II is conventional, driver's compartment at the front, fighting compartment/turret in the centre, and power pack in the rear. The complete powerpack assembly can be removed in around 30 minutes and in field conditions. Suspension is of the conventional torsion bar type and there are six rubber-tyred roadwheels on each side, the drive sprocket at the rear.
The turret and hull are of all-welded steel armour construction. A layer of composite armour has been added to the front arc and maximum thickness is estimated to be around 600mm on the turret front, and around 450mm on the glacis plate. The armour package is of modular design, enabling damaged sections to be replaced or upgrades installed throughout service life. Explosive reactive armour (ERA) can be fitted if required.
炮塔和车体是全-焊接钢装甲制造。一层复合装甲已经被增加到前弧，炮塔前面最大厚度估计600毫米左右，和在在缓慢倾斜板上的 450 mm 的周围。装甲组件采用模块化设计，允许受损部分替换或者在有效寿命升级。爆炸反应装甲（ERA）如果必需能被安装。
Main armament consists of a fully-stabilised 125mm auto-fed smoothbore gun capable of firing various types of ammunition including high explosive, high explosive fragmentation and APFSDS. 39 rounds are carried. The gun may also be capable of firing the Russian 9M119 Refleks (NATO codename: AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile or its Chinese copy.
Both commander and gunner have roof-mounted stabilised sights fitted with either day/image intensification or day/thermal channels, a laser rangefinder and an auto tracker facility. A computerised fire control system is also fitted as standard.
Second armament includes a 7.62mm co-axial machine gun and a 12.7mm air defence machine gun mounted on the commander's cupola.
The hull and turret are protected by composite armour plating. The Type 90-II was the first Chinese tank developed from the start with a 'systems approach', that is, it was intended to have components replaced and upgraded. The new turret design contains composite armour in the frontal arc that is designed to be exchangeable when better armour becomes available. Two sets of six-barrel smoke/HE grenade launchers are mounted on the turret sides.
At least four diesel powerpack options have been tested on the Type 90-II/Al Khalid MBT, including two supplied by the Perkins Engine Company and each comprising of a CV-12 Condor diesel of 1,200hp (as fitted in the Challenger 1 and 2), coupled to a French SESM ESM 500 automatic transmission (as installed in the Leclerc).
至少四种柴油动力装置选择项已经被90-2式/Al Khalid型主战坦克（MBT）测试过，包括二台由Perkins发动机公司供给和每台包括1,200马力(同样安装在挑战者-1/2)的CV-12 Condor柴油发动机，连接到一套法国SESM ESM 500自动变速机构(同样安装在“勒克莱尔”（LeClerc）)。
The improved Type 90-IIM, also known as MBT2000, is fitted with an Ukrainian-made 6TD 1,200hp diesel engine for better performance. The tank is in production in Pakistan under license as the Al Khalid.
改进型90-IIM，也即是MBT2000，为更好的性能配备有一台乌克兰制造的6TD 1,200马力柴油发动机。坦克在许可下由巴基斯坦生产被称为Al Khalid。
The Pakistan-manufactured Al Khalid MBT is reported to be fitted with a Ukraine built 6TD diesel (as fitted in the T-80UD). Claimed to be the most compact MBT diesel engines in the world, the 6TD series are two-stroke, liquid cooled and supercharged with horizontal cylinders and opposed pistons. At its current battle weight of 46t, the engine gives the Al Khalid MBT a 26hp/t power-to-weight ratio and a max speed of 72km/h.
巴基斯坦制造的Al Khalid主战坦克（MBT）据称配备有一台乌克兰制造的6TD柴油发动机(同样安装在T-80 UD)，被宣称是世界上最轻巧的主战坦克（MBT）柴油发动机，6TD系列是二冲程、水冷、涡轮增压采用水平活塞气缸和对置活塞。目前在它的46吨战斗重量，发动机提供Al Khalid主战坦克（MBT）26马力/吨标识动力-到-重量比和最大72公里/小时的速度。
Engine: Ukraine built 6TD 1,200hp liquid cooled diesel
Transmission: Mechanical, planetary
Track: Metallic with RMSh, with rubber-tyred road wheels
Suspension: Torsion bar
Radio: Receive/transmit, telephone
Dimension: Length: 10.07m; Height: 2.40m; Width: 3.50m
Ground Pressure: 26hp/t
Cruising Range: 450km
Speed: Max road 65km/h; max off-road 45km/h
Fording Depths: 5m with snorkel
Main Gun: Indigenous 125mm smoothbore, 39 rounds
Rate of Fire: 8 rounds/min (autoloader), 1~2 r/min (manual load)
Auxiliary Weapon: One coaxial 7.62mm machine gun; one 12.7mm air-defence machine gun
Fire Control: Laser rangefinder input, onboard computer, wind sensor, and control panel
重量： 48 吨
发动机： 乌克兰制造 6TD 1,200马力 水冷柴油发动机
尺寸： 长度 10.07 米；高度 2.40 米；宽度 3.50 米
接地压力？： 26 hp/t标识
行程： 450 公里
速度： 最大道路 65 公里/小时；最大越野 45 公里/小时
涉水深度： 5 米使用通气管
主炮： 本国自行生产的 125 毫米滑膛炮，39 发弹药
射速： 8发/分钟(自动装弹机)，1~2 发/分钟(手动装填)
辅助武器： 一挺同轴 7.62 毫米机枪；一挺 12.7 毫米防空机枪
火控： 激光测距仪（laser rangefinder）输入，车载计算机、风传感器和控制仪表板