Zhi-8 Transport / SAR Helicopter

中国直-8运输SAR直升飞机

Date:2010-01-12 Source:internet By:globalmil Viewed:

Zhi-8 (Z-8) is a medium transport helicopter developed from the French SA 321 Super Frelon, of which 13 examples were sold to the PLA Navy in 1977~78. At least one of these helicopters was disassembled for survey and reverse-engineering. Development of the Chinese copy of the SA 321, designated Z-8, began in 1976 at the Jingdezhen-based Changhe Aircraft Factory (now Changhe Aircraft Industry Group, CAIG). However, the Z-8 development encountered enormous technical difficulties and the project was suspended in 1979 due to financial reasons.

直-8(Z-8)是一种中型运输直升飞机基于法国SA 321“超黄蜂”发展,在1977~78年13架原型出售给PLA海军。至少这些直升飞机其中一架被分解用于测量和反向-工程。中国的SA 321仿造型,指定为Z-8,1976年在景德镇(Jingdezhen)建立的昌河(Changhe)飞机制造厂(现在昌河飞机工业集团,CAIG)发展,然而,Z-8发展遇到了巨大的技术困难,而且计划在1979年由于财政原因被中止。

In 1985, Changhe resumed the Z-8 programme with its own funding, and the first prototype successfully flew in December 1985. The Z-8 entered the PLA Navy service in 1989 for trial and evaluation, but the helicopter was not certified for design finalisation until 1994. Only a small number (15~20) have been built. The helicopter was mainly deployed by the PLA Navy for transport role from land-based airfields.

在1985年,昌河用它自筹资金重新恢复Z-8计划,而且第一架原型在1985年12月成功地飞行。Z-8在1989年为测试和评估进入PLA海军服役,但是直升飞机直到1994年没有设计定型。只有一个小数量(15~20)被制造。直升飞机主要被PLA海军部署用于从陆基飞机场的运送角色。

Z-8A

Development of an army variant designated Z-8A began in the mid-1990s, and the helicopter was certified for design finalisation in February 1999. After two examples were delivered to the PLA Army Aviation Corps for operational test and evaluation, Changhe began the delivery of the first production batch in November 2002. Currently a small number (4~6) of the Z-8A is operated by the PLA 7th Helicopter Regiment in the Jinan Military Region.

Z-8A

指定为Z-8A的一种陆军改型的发展在1990年中期开始,而且直升飞机在1999年2月用于设计定型鉴定。二架为操作测试和评估交付给PLA陆军航空兵,昌河公司在2002年11月交付初始生产批次。现在少量Z-8A被PLA济南(Jinan)军区第7直升飞机团操作。


Z-8A

The Z-8A is similar to the basic variant Z-8 in appearance, apart from its Army woodland camouflage colour scheme instead of the naval grey colour of the Z-8. The Z-8A also retained the nose weather radar and the side floating stabilisers on the original Z-8. The helicopter can carry 27 equipped commandos, or 39 soldiers, or 15 stretchers. If necessary, the helicopter could also carry a small-size SUV-type vehicle via its loading ramp. The helicopter is unarmed.

Z-8A在外表上与基本型Z-8类似,除了它用陆军林地伪装颜色方案而不是海军Z-8的灰色颜色。Z-8A也保有最初Z-8上的前鼻气象雷达和侧漂浮稳定装置(浮筒)。直升飞机能携带27名武装突击队员或39名军人,或15副担架。如果必需,直升飞机也可以经由它的装载斜板携带一辆小-尺寸四轮越野车。直升飞机非武装。

Z-8F

During the 2002 Zhuhai Air Show, Changhe Aircraft Industry Group (CAIG) announced that it was developing a new utility variant Z-8F, which would be powered by three Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67B turboshaft engines for improved performance. The helicopter made its maiden flight in August 2004.

Z-8F

在2002年珠海(Zhuhai)航空表演,昌河飞机工业集团(CAIG)宣布正在发展一种新的通用型Z-8F,为改进性能会使用三台普惠加拿大公司的PT6A-67B涡轴发动机提供动力。直升飞机在2004年8月作了首次飞行。


Z-8F

Z-8K/KA

The PLA Air Force introduced the Z-8K as a dedicated search and rescue (SAR) helicopter in 2007. The helicopter appears to be based on the Z-8F design, featuring the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67B turboshaft engine and redesigned air inlets. As well as having a hydraulic hoist fitted externally above the cabin door, the helicopter also featured an external forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor and a search light fitted underneath the cockpit. There are two variants currently in service: Z-8K with a blue-white camouflage scheme operated by the PLAAF 26th Air Division, and Z-8KA with a green colour scheme operated by the PLAAF Airborne Corps.

Z-8K/KA

PLA空军在2007年引进了Z-8K当做一种专业搜寻和援救(SAR)直升飞机。直升飞机计划似乎以Z-8F为基础,以普惠加拿大公司PT6A-67B涡轴发动机并重新设计进气口为特点。除了有在舱门上方安装的液压提升装置,直升飞机也以一个外部前视红外线(FLIR)传感器和座舱下安装一个搜索灯为特色。有二种改型在服役中:Z-8K蓝-白伪装方案被PLAAF第26空军师操作和一种绿色方案的Z-8KA被PLAAF航空兵操作。


Z-8K


Z-8KA

Z-8JA/JH

A shipborne variant designated Z-8J has recently entered service with the PLA Navy. As the original variant Z-8 did not possess the ability to take-off and land on surface vessels, the Z-8J features some modifications in its landing gears to allow shipborne operations. There are two variants currently in service: Z-8JA for shipborne transport and resupply roles, and Z-8JH for the medical evacuation role.

Z-8JA/JH

一种舰载改型指定为Z-8J已经进入PLA海军服役。初始型Z-8不具有在水面舰艇上起降能力,Z-8J特点是在它的起落装置一些修改去允许舰载操作。有二种改型在服役中:Z-8JA用于舰载远送和再补给角色,和Z-8JH用于医疗撤离角色。


Z-8JH

Design

The Z-8 is identical to the SA 321 Super Frelon in appearance, with a six-bladed main rotor mounted above centre of the fuselage. Of the three turboshaft engines, two are mounted side-by-side atop the fuselage forward of main rotor, with the third behind the main rotor. Round air intakes are located above and behind cockpit. Boat-hull type fuselage mounts stabilising floats on either side of the body, which has fixed landing gear and an upswept rear section. The landing gear of the Z-8 is larger in size compared to that of the SA 321. The nose is round with glassed-in cockpit. The tail boom tapers from the main body to the swept-back, tapered fin with a rotor on the left. The single flat is tapered and flat-mounted on the right side of the fin. The army variant Z-8A also features a large rear ramp for fast access by the troops.

设计

Z-8和SA 321“超黄蜂”在外表上相同,在机身上方中心安装六桨叶主旋翼。三台涡轴发动机中,二台安装在主减速器前的机身顶部两侧,第三台在主减速器后。圆形进气口位于座舱后部上方。船-壳型机身两侧安装稳定浮筒,固定起落架和上斜尾段。Z-8的起落架在大小方面与SA 321相比较大些。圆形鼻子连同围玻璃驾驶座舱。尾梁从主机身倾斜渐细,锥形尾翼连同一个左侧安装的尾旋翼。锥形单尾平翼水平安装在尾翼右侧。陆军改型Z-8A为军人快速通过以一个后部斜板为特点。

Mission Equipment

The Z-8 has a hoist with winch and scoop fitted externally above the starboard side cabin door for rescue missions. For transport missions, the helicopter can carry 27 armed soldiers (maximum 39), or 15 patient litters and a medical staff, or 5,000kg cargo externally on sling.

任务设备

Z-8在右舷舱门外部有一个起升机采用绞盘和吊具用于援救任务。用于运送任务,直升飞机能携带27名武装军人(最大39名),或15名担架上病人和一名医务人员,或外部吊挂5,000公斤货物。

The Z-8 lacks the ASW equipments and surface search radar found on the original SA 321, nor can it operate from the flight deck of surface vessels. A nose dome in front of the cockpit houses a Chinese indigenous navigation / weather radar.

以最初SA 321为基础的Z-8缺乏ASW装备和海面搜索雷达,也不能从水面舰艇飞行甲板操作。座舱前的一个圆形前鼻内装中国本国的导航/天气雷达。

Engines

The basic variant Z-8 has three WZ-6 (Chinese copy of Turboméca 3C III) turboshafts, each rated at 1,512hp (1,128kW). The internal fuel capacity is 3,900 litres. The improved Z-8F will be fitted with three Canada-made Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67B turboshaft engines, each rated at 1,941hp (1,448kW).

发动机

基本型Z-8有三台WZ-6(中国仿造的Turboméca 3C III型)涡轴发动机,每台额定1,512 hp(1,128 kW)。机身内燃料能力是3,900升。改良的Z-8F将会配备有三台加拿大制造的普惠PT6A-67B涡轴发动机,每台额定1,941 hp(1,448 kW)。

Flight crew: 2
Length: 23m
Main rotor diameter: 18.9m
Height: 6.76m
Weight (empty): 6.86t (Z-8); 7.1t (Z-8F)
Weight (maximum take off): 13t
Engine: 3 x WZ-6 turboshafts, each rated at 1,512hp (Z-8), or 3 x Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67B turboshaft, each rated at 1,941hp
Internal fuel: 3,900 litre
Maximum speed: 248km/h (Z-8); 255km/h (Z-8F)
Service ceiling: 3,100m (Z-8); 4,700m (Z-8F)
Hover ceiling (in ground effect): 1,900m (Z-8); 2,800m (Z-8F)
Range: 700km (with 27 soldiers), or 500km (with 3,000kg payload)
Endurance: 4 hours
Maximum payload: 5,000kg
Typical load: 27 troops or 15 stretchers

飞行组员: 2 名
机长: 23 米
主旋翼直径: 18.9 米
机高: 6.76 米
重量: (空重) 6.86 吨(Z-8);7.1 吨(Z-8F);(最大起飞) 13 吨
发动机: 3 x WZ-6 涡轴发动机,每台额定1,512 hp(Z-8),或 3 x 普惠 PT6A-67B 涡轴发动机,每台额定1,941 hp
内部燃料: 3,900 公升
最大速度: 248 km/h(Z-8);255 km/h(Z-8 F)
 升限: 3,100 米(Z-8);4,700 米(Z-8F)
盘旋升限: (地面效应) 1,900 米(Z-8);2,800 米(Z-8F)
航程: 700 公里(连同27名军人),或500公里(连同3,000公斤负载)
续航: 4个小时
最大负载: 5,000 公斤
典型负荷: 27名军人或15副担架

Last update: 2 January 2009
最后更新:2009年1月2日

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